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Vol. 24, No. 1. 



JULY, 1907. 



Whole No. 93. 




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CONTENTS, JULY, 1907. 



I. Some Noted Negroes 1 

II. Alain LeRoy Locke. By Wm. C. Bolivar 14 

J J I. The Negroes of Philadelphia. By R. R. Wright, Jr. .20 

IV. Theodore Tilton. By R. C. Ransom 36 

V. The Caucasian. By Joseph G. Bryant 42 

VI. Religious: The Christian and Amusements — Effect 

of College Training on the Ministry 53 

Women: Mirandy Hears About Creeds — A Family 
of Temperance Workers — Who Are the Idealists. 57 

Education : 1 )isciplinary Course of Study 64 

Miscellaneous: Jews Leaving Palestine — The 
New Kind of Indian — Diminishing Lynchings — A 
Notable Conference 67 

Editorial: Reform — Japan and the United States 
Mrs. Derrick's Death — The Immortal Miss Jeanes 
— The African Sleeping Disease Cured — Mr. 
Stead — "The Atlanta Riot," by Baker — Some Pe- 
culiarities of American Suffrage — The Tendency 
of Negro Population — The Pen and Microscope 
vs. the Sword — The Hague Conference 7$ 

Business: Notes of Travel. By Miss E. Marie 
Carter 83 



CHURCH REVIEW 

Vol. XXIV, No. i. JULY, 1907. Whole No. 93 

I 

SOME NOTED NEGROES OF THE FAST. 



Besides the men and women fairly well known to the per- 
son of average information by reason of their appearance, 
more or less fully and frequently, in the pages of history or 
current literature, there are characters not a few deserving of 
public presentation, whose names are hidden away in fugitive 
pamphlets, old books out of circulation, or in the memories 
of contemporaries still alive, but soon to pass because of age. 
These names ought to be preserved to history and to the Negro 
race, for it is not so rich in heroic personalities that it can af- 
ford to let one pass from existence for lack of a biographer, or 
at least an index finger pointing to the place in some musty- 
corner of an old library where the facts can be found. 

The names of men like Douglass in America, Dumas in 
France, or Toussaint L'Ouverture in Hayti, are safely his- 
tory's; there are others full worthy of an equally honorable, 
if not an equally illustrious, page, from whom the obscuration 
of the studied silence of Caucasian book-makers must be 
lifted. 

It has been said, and is to a degree true, that the Negro 



I THE REVIEW 

is so busy making* history that he has not time to write it. It 
may state a fact, but it declares a deficiency also; for the men 
and deeds, noble though they be, that die for want of a chron- 
icler, exercise no influence in fixing the capacity of a race, re- 
futing the malicious diatribes of a priori dogmatists, inspiring 
the hopes of following generations, or justifying the faith of 
sturdy friends. Men, therefore, like Daniel Murray and Wm. 
C. Bolivar, who are devoting all their leisure moments to the 
discovery of such persons and to the unearthing of creditable 
records too long buried, are of a class which is doing more val- 
uable work for race vindication than most of the men who 
regard the deed without the record. 

The writer, acknowledging the inspiration of their ex- 
ample and mindful of the mission of the A. M. E. Review, 
has, in this series, attempted to "lend a hand." 

The first person to whom the reader's attention is di- 
rected is 

Robert Campbell. 

In 1858, a year previous to that made memorable in 
American history as the time when John Brown's raid at Har- 
per's Ferry precipitated the "irrepressible conflict" that de- 
stroyed human slavery, a body of earnest humanitarians met 
together and formed what they called the "General Board of 
•Commissioners" to plan and provide for an exploration, scien- 
tific and anthropological, of that part of Central Africa occu- 
pied by the Egbas and Zorubas. The purpose was not avow- 
edly to ascertain the fitness of that region for the residence of 



SOME NOTED NEGROES 3 

the American Negro, though, doubtless, that had a large un- 
acknowledged place in their minds. 

The gentlemen forming this Board of Commissioners 
were men well known in their day around Philadelphia and 
the North. William Howard Day, President; Matisen F. 
Bailey, Vice President; Geo. W. Brodie, Secretary; James 
Madison Bell, Treasurer; Alfred Whipple, Auditor; Dr. Mar- 
tin R. Delany, Special Foreign Secretary; Isaac D. Shadd, 
who subsequently took Mr. Bailey's place as Vice President; 
Abram D. Shadd and James Henry Harris. 

All of these men had shown a profound interest in the 
promotion of the political and general interests of the colored 
inhabitants of North America, especially of the United States 
and Canada. After due deliberation, it was decided to or- 
ganize "The Niger Valley Exploring Party" for the purpose 
of visiting, the Niger region to make a topographical, geological 
and geographical examination of it; to inquire also into the 
state and condition of the people of the valley, with such other 
scientific inquiries as might be deemed expedient for the 
purpose of science and for general information ; but it was ex- 
plicitly stated that the expedition had no reference to an emi- 
gration movement, the board being, in fact, opposed to the 
idea. 

Nevertheless, it would require a stretch of faith not likely 
to be exercised by our readers who know of the oppression 
and interest of the Negro in America at that time, to ask them 
•to believe that this party of Negro explorers were going out 



4 THE REVIEW 

for pure love of science and in absolute disregard of the fitness 
of Africa as a haven for their kinsmen in tribulation. 

Among the five chosen for this work was Professor Rob- 
ert Campbell, of whom we write. He was one of the earliest 
and most eminent scientists produced by the Negro race in 
America, holding at the time of his appointment the profes- 
sorship of Science in the famous Institute for Colored Youth, 
Philadelphia, recently removed from that city to Cheyney, 
Pa., about 20 miles away, where it still flourishes under the 
management of the Friends. 

It was because of Professor Campbell's scientific attain- 
ments that he was selected for the exploring party, for it was 
desired that the observation should not be superficial or hasty, 
but thorough and competent. 

He was not a full-blood Negro, but a quadroon, resembling 
in personal appearance a Scotchman in cast of face and in his 
raw-boned frame. His eye was keen and piercing, his nose 
thin and sensitive, well bridged and straight. The mouth was 
thin and straight-lined, the chin pronounced and inclined to 
be square ; the cheek-bones prominent ; while a mustache and 
scrawny, scattering beard covered his lower face. Altogether, 
his was the make-up to undertake the arduous duties assigned 
him, and right joyfully did he undertake them, when, having 
crossed to Liverpool, he set sail on the second stage of his 
voyage June 24, 1859, touching at Funchal, Madiera, Santa 
Cruz, Teneriffe and Cape Verde, before anchoring in the port 
of Bathurst, Gambia. 

We are indebted to his own account of this memorable 






SOME NOTED NEGROES 5 

trip for most of the interesting facts we are able to present. 
On his return, he published a brief, but very satisfactory, ac- 
count of the country, the tribes and their customs ; an account 
that loses none of its interest read by the light of more ambi- 
tious volumes in these later days when Africa and everything 
African is being examined with a microscope and raked with 
a fine-toothed comb. 

Landing at Lagos on the Gulf of Guinea, after a stay of 
some weeks awaiting Dr. Martin R. Delaney, his companion 
explorer, in vain, he began his journey inland up the Ogun 
river, having for his first objective the native town of Abbeo- 
kuta. He was fortunate in making the acquaintance of Rev. 
Samuel Crowther, the gifted native preacher and scholar, since 
made Bishop of Niger by the Episcopal Church — a man as 
brilliant as he is black. The two sons, Samuel and Josiah 
Crowther, decided to accompany Prof. Campbell, and together 
they set out. In due time they arrived at Abbeokuta and were 
given an audience with the King, who regarded their mission 
with great favor. 

A digression whi'ch Prof. Campbell makes in his narra- 
tive is of much interest as showing that the idea that Negroes 
always pay more deference to white men because they are 
white than to colored men, is false and the result of slavery 
rather than any innate sense of inferiority in the black man. 
On this point, he says : 

'The natives generally at first regarded me as a 'white 
man, until I informed them of my connection with the Negro. 
This announcement always gained me a warmer reception. 



6 THE REVIEW 

"The reader here will permit me to digress to explain a 
matter respecting which there has hitherto been some miscon- 
ception. It has been asserted that the native African does not 
manifest under any circumstances the same deference for col- 
ored men as he does for white men; and so fully is this be- 
lieved, particularly in the United States, that both my col- 
league, Dr. Delaney, and myself were frequently cautioned 
respecting the danger to which we should be exposed in con- 
sequence of our complexion. It is indeed true that more re- 
spect has been accorded to white men, on account of their su- 
perior learning and intelligence, than to the generality of semi- 
civilized black men from the Brazils and other places, who 
now live in the Aku country ; but it is a great mistake to think 
that the same is withheld from colored men similarly endowed 
with their white brethren. Let any disinterested person visit- 
ing Abeokuta place himself in a position to notice the manner 
in which such a person, for instance, as the Reverend Samuel 
Crowther, or even his son of the same name, each a pure Ne- 
gro, is treated, and he would soon perceive the profound re- 
spect with which Africans treat those of their own race worthy 
of it. The white man who supposes himself respected in Af- 
rica, merely because he is white, is grievously mistaken. I 
have had opportunities to know, that if he should, presuming 
on his complexion, disregard propriety in his bearing towards 
the authorities, he would receive as severe rebuke as a similar 
offense would bring him in England. One of the chiefs of 
Abbeokuta, Atambala, was with us one day when a young 
missionary entered and passed him with only a casual nod of 



SOME NOTED NEGROES 7 

the head. As soon as he was seated the haughty old chief 
arose and said, in his own tongue : 'Young man, whenever any 
of my people, even the aged, approaches me, he prostrates him- 
self with his face to the ground. I do not expect the same 
from you or from civilized men, (oyibo), nevertheless remem- 
ber always that I shall demand all the respect due to a chief of 
Abbeokuta.' A sufficient apology was given, and the matter 
ended, not without, it is hoped, teaching a salutary lesson." 

This incident gives us an insight into the distorting ef- 
fects of slavery. Men who have seen white enthroned and 
made the standard of all excellence learn to depreciate, if not 
despise, black; which, indeed, was the aim of those who de- 
prived their fellow-men of God-given liberty. It is a travesty 
upon reason and good judgment to distort and deform a hu- 
man being's conceptions by a false system of training and then 
point to the resulting product as the outcome of "race traits- 
and tendencies;" yet this is exactly what American opinion 
does. 

Possibly no question has been more hotly debated than 
the Negro's ability of self-government. The Reconstruction 
regime is always put to do service to demonstrate his inability ; 
but Professor Campbell found a degree of social and political 
efficiency among the Aku nation, of whom the Egbas form a 
part, that was truly wonderful. Besides, it had the rare 
merit of being indigenous to Africa, thus discrediting another 
stock explanation of whatever merit Americans see in a Negro 
— that of "mere power to imitate." 



8 THE REVIEW 

Professor Campbell informs us that — 

"Viewed as to its power of enforcing order, and afford- 
ing security for life and property, the government of Abbeo- 
kuta is as efficient as a civilized government can be, and it ac- 
complishes these ends with the greatest ease and simplicity. 
Punishment is always summary and certain; notwithstanding, 
nobody complains of injustice. The penalty for theft is ex- 
treme, being either decapitation or foreign slavery. Before 
the advent of missionaries and civilized people adultery was 
sometimes also a capital offense; now it is modified to heavy 
fines, the amount of which is always proportioned to the posi- 
tion and wealth of the offender. Cases of adultery often oc- 
cur, and must be expected until they are taught to abandon 
the disgusting system of polygamy. 

"The tenure of property is as it is among civilized people, 
except as to land, which is deemed common property; every 
individual enjoys the right of taking unoccupied land, as much 
us he can use, wherever and whenever he pleases. It is deemed 
his property as long as he keeps it in use; after that, it is 
again common property. This custom is observed by all the 
Akus. 

"The surviving relatives of one buried on any lot of 
ground have a right to that ground, which nothing can tempt 
them to relinquish, and from respect to the sentiment, no one 
would invade on any pretext, particularly when the deceased 
was a mother or father. Mr. S. Crowther, Jr., has long de- 
sired to possess a strip of land contiguous to his place of bus- 
iness, but no offer of money can induce the owner to part with 



SOME NOTED NEGROES 9 

it, although he is very poor; because his father lies buried 
there." 

Surely, here is the source of Henry George's single tax 
theory which is intended to take from a man all idle land, 
leaving him only as much as he can use profitably ; yet observe 
how filial regard, and respect for the dead, make a beautiful 
exception to the general law in Africa by setting apart forever 
burial grounds. Nothing quite like it can be found outside of 
China, where veneration for parents approaches ancestor wor- 
ship. Certainly America, which runs a street right over the 
bones of a hero to make way for traffic, cannot match it. 

A little further on, our author gives us an amusing in- 
stance of that universal jealousy that seems to exist among 
physicians of every race and kind. The sprightly recital can- 
not be improved upon. Says he : 

"There are many doctors — physicians, I might have said 
—throughout the Aku country; and they are as jealous of their 
profession, and as opposed to innovation in practice as the most 
orthodox disciple of Aesculapius amongst us can be. Shortly 
after the return of Mr. S. Crowther, Jr., from London, where 
he received the training of a surgeon, several of these doctors, 
hearing that he was prescribing for many who were before 
their patients, assembled en masse in the market place, and af- 
ter due deliberation issued an "injunction" that he should 
forthwith abandon his practice. Some of the foremost of them 
were deputed to communicate the decree of the faculty. They 
were cordially received and heard with patience. After some 
conversation, Mr. C. informed them that he was willing to 



10 THE REVIEW 

obey, but only after a trial on both sides should prove him to 
be the less skilled in the mysteries of the profession. To this 
they consented. Time was given for preparation on both 
sides. In the afternoon the regulars appeared, clothed in their 
most costly garments, and well provided with orishas or charms 
attached to all parts of their persons and dress. In the mean- 
time Mr. Crowther had also prepared to receive them. A table 
was placed in the middle of the room and on it a dish in which 
were a few drops of sulphuric acid, so placed that a slight mo- 
tion of the table would cause it to flow into a mixture of chlor- 
ate of potassa and white sugar. A clock was also in the room,, 
from which a small bird issued every hour and announced the 
time by cooing. This was arranged so as to coo while they 
were present. Mr. Crowther then made a brief harangue, and 
requested them to say who should lead off in the contest. This 
privilege they accorded to him. The door was closed, the cur- 
tains drawn down. All waited in breathless expectation., 
Presentlv the bird came out, and to their astonishment cooed 
twelve times, and suddenly from the midst of the dish burst 
forth flame and a terrible explosion. The scene that followed 
was indescribable; one fellow rushed through the window and 
scampered; another in his consternation overturning chairs, 
tables and everything in his way, took refuge in the bed- 
room, under the bed, from which he was with difficulty after- 
wards removed. . It need not be added that they gave no more 
trouble, and the practice they sought to break up was only the 
more increased for their pains." 

Prof. Campbell, pursuing the purpose for which he was 



SOME NOTED NEGROES 11 

sent out, collected much valuable information about the form 

of government, the grades of native officials, native food and 
cooking, clothing, skill in iron working, shrewdness in trade, 
native notions of honor, slavery, polygamy, military genius and 
funeral rites. In almost all of these specifications he shows 
the innate ability, ingenuity and initiative of the African who 
had not come in contact with Caucasion instruction. The 
whole showing is in disagreement with American ideas. 

Those readers interested in philological investigation are 
told of the richness of the Aku vocabulary. In methods of 
salutation alone they have more than a score of words. For 
instance : 

"Equals meeting will simply say, acu; but one addressing 
a superior affixes some word to- acu, thus, acabo, (acu abo*) 
acuni, etc. The superior usually salutes first, and when the 
disparity of position is great, the inferior prostrates. The 
young always prostrate to the aged. Women kneel, but nev- 
er prostrate. Sons, without reference to age or rank, prostrate 
to their mothers or senior female relatives. They never suffer 
anything to interfere with the observance of these courtesies. 
There is an appropriate salutation for every occasion; for in- 
stance: acuaro, good morning; acuale, good evening; acusht\ 
for being industrious; acabo, or acuabo, (ua as diphthong), 
for returning from a journey; acatijo, for long absence; acu- 
joco, for sitting or resting; acudaro, for standing or walking; 
acuraju, expressive of sympathy, in distress or sickness ; acne- 
ro, for bearing a burthen; acualejo, for entertaining a stranger. 



*One vowel dropped for euphony 



12 THE REVIEW 

So rich is the language in salutations, that the above list could 
have been increased indefinitely." 

So great a variety in the language of politeness would 
indicate a Chesterfieldian people, and truly it is so, for we are 
informed that not even a Frenchman is more polite than these 
untaught Africans. Even two strangers never pass without 
saluting, and the most scrupulous attention is paid to the social 
position of persons saluted. An old man, whose age and posi- 
tion as selector of the successor to the king entitled him, by 
native custom, to require the prostration of all who came into 
his presence, refused to allow the king to pay this act of def- 
erence; but the king insisted. Then began what must have 
been a most amusing contest between the two, each seeking, 
on every meeting, to approach the other unawares and pros- 
trate himself first. 

They could frequently be seen stealthily creeping upon 
each other, hiding behind bushes or huts, to be the first to 
throw themselves on the ground before each other. 

After gathering much valuable data for the General 
Board of Commissioners who had sent him out, and pushing 
his explorations as far inland as Ilorin, notwithstanding seri- 
ous hindrances from native wars, Professor Campbell reached 
Liverpool on his return May 12, i860, having been from home 
about one year. 

Proceeding to London with Dr. Martin R. Delaney, his 
fellow explorer, he reached there in time to attend that famous 
session of the International Statistical Congress, over which 
the Consort Prince Albert .presided, and from which Judge 



SOME NOTED NEGROES 13 

A. B. Longstreet, delegate from Georgia, retired in high 
dudgeon because Dr. Delaney was seated on the platform, a 
fact to which Lord Brougham called admiring attention. 

It will be remembered that the General Board of Com- 
missioners who sent out Professor Campbell and Dr. Delaney 
disclaimed any intention of encouraging or arranging for emi- 
gration to Africa, yet after having made the exploration Pro- 
fessor Campbell announced his intention to make Africa his 
home. In the wisdom of this course both of the explorers 
agreed. Indeed, they proceeded to negotiate a treaty with 
the tribes they visited, stipulating four things : 

i. The kings and chiefs agreed to grant them on behalf 
of the African race in America, the right of settling in any 
part of their unoccupied territory. 

2. These settlers were to be governed by their own laws 
and customs. 

3. The settlers were to have "intelligence, education, a 
knowledge of the arts and sciences, agriculture, and other 
mechanical and industrial occupations, which they shall put 
into immediate operation by improving the lands and in other 
useful vocations." 

4. The laws of the natives were to be respected, and 
matters of dispute between natives and settlers were to be set- 
tled by commissioners equally chosen. 

These few glimpses of Professor Robert Campbell show 
him to have been a very capable man in his chosen field of 
science, observant as a traveler and entitled to some rating as 
ro statesmanship. Certainly, his love and loyalty for the 
Negro stood out above all else. 



14 THE! REVIEW 






II 

^L^/Af L*#OK LOCKE. 



Had it been known that Alain LeRoy Locke was a candi- 
date for the Cecil Rhodes Oxford Scholarship, whatever of 
surprise there might have come- in the result of such examina- 
tion, to those who knew him, it would only have come through 
a knowledge of failure. The fact of his candidacy came with 
the newspaper accounts of the decision of the examining board. 
Scores of persons scarcely knew of the existence of this young 
man; but there were some who had followed his fortunes 
through a long line of triumphs, through personal interest, 
from the kindergarten up; who would have discounted the cli- 
max without the least fear of its being misplaced. Human 
kind delights in results, but is equally delighted at antecedents. 
We all want to know of momentum and processes,and now that 
young Locke is an international figure, anterior considerations 
share the fact of the moment. The editorials in the Philadel- 
phia Press and Inquirer laid great stress on a well equipped 
ancestry, for three generations. That was on the paternal 
side. The maternal line takes us back to Charles Shorter, a 
freeman born about 1790, and an enlisted soldier in the war 
of 1812. His wife (born Daffin) was also free born. They 
both possessed schooling equal to the best of their kind nearly 
•one hundred years ago. This advantage was improved upon 




ALAIN Le ROY LOCKE, 

OF PENNSYLVANIA 

EIRST COLORED "WI^IIVER OE THE CECIL RHODES' 
OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP. 



ALAIN LsROY LOCKE 15 

in his grandparents with an advanced stride on the part of his 
mother, born Mary J. Hawkins, who was a graduate of the 
Institute for Colored Youth, in the class, of 1869, and whose 
•career as a teacher has continued until now, with but few in- 
terruptions, with fine success all the way through. 

The military spirit in his family seemed to be in the ma- 
ternal line, because his great uncle, Thomas Hawkins, won 
Congressional thanks, as well as' a governmental medal for un- 
usual bravery during the Civil War. His grandfather, Ish- 
rhael Locke, was born a freeman in Salem, New Jersey, in 
1820, and died in 1852. He attended the public schools of his 
native place, and was soon noted for his ability and studious 
habits. This resulted in a continued course, privately, under 
tutors, when he made great advancement and became a well 
equipped man. He taught school in Salem, N. J., and was 
sent to Africa by a Society of Friends, to establish schools 
and to do missionary work. Four years were spent there, and he 
married a daughter of Kentucky parents, who' had preceded him 
on a similar mission. On his way to Africa he spent a season 
in England and matriculated as a student at Cambridge Uni- 
versity in a special course of lectures. Returning to the Uni- 
ted States he was made master of a public school at Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island. Later on he taught in Camden, N. J., 
located at Fifth and Cherry streets. When the Institute for 
Colored youth began its orderly career Ishmael Locke was 
elected as its head. It was through Marmaduke Cope, 
Philadelphia's great merchant and ship owner, that he was 
so placed. Mr. Cope knew of the qualifications of Ishmael 



16 THE REVIEW 

Locke through direct personal knowledge with men in Salem, 
N. J., and Providence, R. I. These were school officials and 
thoroughly able to judge. Some of his endorsers are worthy 
of mention, and among them : T. Ellwood Chapman, Edward 
Needles, Caleb Clothier, Casper Wister, R. P. Thompson, At- 
torney General of New Jersey, Alexander G. Cattell, later on 
United States Senator from New Jersey, Rev. William B. 
Otis, rector of St. John's Protestant Episcopal church, Salem, 
N. J., of which Ishmael Locke was a communicant member, 
and many others. This was as far back as 1844, and to merit 
such high endorsement from men not given to signing their 
names without full knowledge proves the sterling quaiities of 
the man. 

The sequence is in the father, Pliny I. Locke, a native of 
this city and a. man who displayed great mind strength, all 
through his school life which was had here at his home. He 
graduated from the Institute for Colored Youth in 1867, un- 
der Prof. E. D. Bassett, and in all lines of study outranked 
his colleagues. He was a fine mathematician, and the influ- 
ence of his methods as a teacher lasts till now. Through 
Marmaduke Cope, the friend of his father, he taught in the 
school where his father was the first head and where he had 
been a scholar. Later on he entered the government service 
in Washington, D. C, and held the highest grade clerkship. 
While there he finished the law course at Howard University ; 
later on returning to his home in this city, he received a clerk- 
ship in the post-office, and afterwards an inspector of me- 
ters in the gas department. The evolution thus outlined from 



ALAIN LkROY LOCKE J 7 

both the paternal and maternal lines, brings us to the mam 
object — Alain LeRoy Locke. 

He was born in Philadelphia in 1885, and being an only 
child, with both parents experienced teachers and thoroughly 
familiar with child nature, his training began in his own home 
with an orderliness out of the common. All of his play was 
arranged with the added view of study. Not that he was 
hampered, but there was intelligent direction in the relief mo- 
ments of his tasks. He could romp, be noisy, and did all that 
boys of his age usually did. His parents knew his aptitude 
at assimilation and digestion, and in every way furthered it. 
The death of his father left him under the sole care of a 
mother, and her share in shaping his after successes has beeiv 
as sane as unremittent. When Miss Florence A. Lewis (now 
Mrs. Charles E. Bentley) was educational editor of the Phil- 
adelphia Press, she said of him : "In one of the divisions of 
the tenth grade the smallest and youngest boy, LeRoy Locke,. 
is said to- be doing the most satisfactory work, and is leading: 
his class. Locke is doing especially good work in mathe- 
matics." This was the estimate of his teachers and the opin- 
ion, from observation, of the writer, who had herself foeera 
a teacher. It must be remembered that the boy Locke was 
even then a great deal younger than his classmates. The av- 
erage age of our High School graduates is nineteen. Lock 
entered No. 1, and finished the course No. 1 at sixteen. From 
there to the School of Pedagogy, leading all the way through 
and ahead of all at the end. The same thing' has obtained aft 
Harvard University, from which he has just been graduated, 



18 THE REVIEW 

winning all the honors through the various terms. The fact 
must be noted, that he has achieved all this in three years, in- 
stead of the usual four. He entered the examination for the 
Cecil Rhodes Oxford scholarship and was one of five out 

of fifty, the other from Pennsylvania being a Jew. If stolid- 
ity, endeavor and brain power count, no one knowing the sub- 
ject of this chronicle will have the slightest apprehension as to 
a repetition of past triumphs during the three years' course 
he is to take at Oxford University. 

There is an old story about John C. Calhoun's having said : 
""li you show me a Negro able to comprehend Greek, in the 
least, I will acknowledge my mistake in all previous estimates 
as to brain power." Just after that James McCune Smith, of 
New York, graduated at Edinburg University, Scotland; Jon- 
athan C. Gibbs, of Philadelphia, a few years later from Dart- 
mouth, and ten years after that, Jesse E. Glasgow, of this city, 
had nearly finished a brilliant course at Glasgow University, 
wvhen cut off by death. 

The Rhodes bequest knows nothing of race, color or na- 
tionality. This benefactor knew the importance of character, 
and in the conclusions of the Board of Managers that counted 
with Locke, along with his pure ability. As the Boost Book 
Magazine said : "There were five men to take the last exam- 
ination. Four of these were white. The black won out. 
It was decided that he was not only the most learned student, 
but that he possessed the qualification of manliness and the 
further asset of popularity. ***** There is a tre- 
-.mendous significance in this thing. * * * * * 



ALAIN LeROY LOCKE 19 

The black man had to fight an uphill fight." 
Lock's "modesty is a candle to his merit/' and 
public notoriety is far from his taste. The narrator of this 
cursory glance at Locke and his forbears has done it despite 
the fact of his dislike for the limelight. He is thoroughly con- 
scientious and works hard, not only from a sense of duty, but 
because study is his passion. In what he has achieved a race 
has been uplifted. His aversion to publicity stays the pen. 
This much millions feel a proprietorship in, and it is for this 
reason that the writer has especially aimed to picture the loins 
from which Alain LeRoy Locke sprung. 

Just one month ago, Alain LeRoy Locke added to his 
great triumph in March, by winning the Bowdoin Prize at 
Harvard. Even without securing the Rhodes Oxford schol- 
arship, this would have been a rare achievement. The be- 
stowal is the highest within the gift of Harvard, and but sel- 
dom granted. Among previous holders, were Longfellow and 
Lowell. It carries with it, a medal, a public presentation of 
a thesis, and two hundred and fifty dollars in money, and is 
given for literary work. Most men consider themselves for- 
tunate to even graduate in the specified four years, and here 
is a very young man, who lops off one year, and gathers in 
every honor obtainable. This last act accents many other 
strong ones, and presages, not only victories at Oxford, but 
after results of vast good, not only to himself, but to his kind, 
and the world generally. Our subject is a live refutation of 
mental inferiority cm the part of the Negro. 

William C. Bolivar. 



20 THE REVIEW 



III, 



THE NEGROES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



[Mr. R. R. Wright, Jr., has carved for himself a commanding and unique place 
among the social students a ad statisticians of the country. His equipoise and ability 
to draw legitimate deductions from figures and isolated facts compel the respect, if 
not the assent, of all thoughtful men. It is because of their informational and ref- 
erence value that this series of papers originally printed in "The Public Ledger," 
are reproduced. We are sure their value will be generally appreciated. v-Editor.] 



I. 

While to-day the whole country has its interest turned 
upon the question of the Negroes in general, and recently upon 
the Negro soldiers in particular, it will not be without profit 
to those interested in the subject to relate a few things regard- 
ing the black population in our midst — the Negroes of Phil- 
adelphia. 

There has never been a. time in the history of Philadel- 
phia when there were no Negroes here; but when they first 
came, or how, we may never know. In the first laws for the 
government of the Province of Pennsylvania black servants 
are mentioned along with white servants, plainly showing their 
presence in the colony during the time of William Penn. In- 
deed, there is evidence that they were in Pennsylvania and 
Delaware before the Proprietor came to this country. 

To-day Philadelphia has about 5 per cent, of its popula- 
tion Negroes, which is two-and-a-half times as great a percent- 
age as in New York or Chicago. • Philadelphia has the largest 



NEGROES OF PHILADELPHIA 21 

aggregate Negro population in the North, and the fourth larg- 
est in the whole country. Our Negro population for numbers 
is only exceeded by Washington, D. C, which in 1900 had. 
86,702; Baltimore, 79,258, and New Orleans, 77,714. Phil- 
adelphia had 62,613 Negroes in 1900, and at the present time 
the colored population is nearly 80,000. Next to Philadel- 
phia, New York city has the largest Negro population, the 
number being 60,666, and then the cities follow in population 
in the order here given : Memphis, Tenn., 49,910; Louisville, 
K y-> 3SM39; Atlanta, Ga., 35,727; St. Louis, Mo., 35,516; 
Richmond, Va., 32,230; Charleston, S. C, 31,522; Chicago, 
30,150; Nashville, Tenn., 30,044. There are 13 cities having 
more than 30,000 Negroes; three of these are in the North, 
six are in the border States and four in the far South. 

Philadelphia, like most of the Northern cities, gets is 
Negro inhabitants largely from the South. Only about a 
third of them were born in the State of Pennsylvania, and 
about one- fourth in the city of Philadelphia, while the num- 
ber whose parents were also born in the city is exceedingly 
small. The accompanying table shows the States from which 
Philadelphia has drawn its colored population: 

SOURCE OF NEGRO POPULATION OF PHILADEL- 
PHIA, BASED UPON UNITED STATES 
CENSUS. 1900. 
Place of Birth. No. Per Ct. 

Northeastern States 25,609 42 . 1 

Maine 17 - 

New Hampshire 6 .... 

Vermont 10 .... 

Massachusetts % 183 .... 



22 



THE REVIEW 



Connecticut , 108 

Rhode Island 52 

New York 627 

New Jersey i,77i 

Pennsylvania 22,8.35 

Southeastern States 34,255 

Delaware 2,527 

Maryland 9,474 

Virginia 16,369 

West Virginia 197 

North Carolina 3,403 

South Carolina ._ 577 

Georgia 429 

Florida 94 

District of Columbia .' 1,185 

Southwestern States 457 

Mississippi 54 

Louisiana $7 

Texas 42 

Tennessee 109 

Arkansas 18 

Kentucky 59 

Alabama , in 

Indian Territory 2 

Oklahoma 5 

North Central States 405 

Ohio 172 

Indiana 32 

Illinois 64 

Michigan 26 

Wisconsin 36 

Minnesota 13 

Iowa 1 

Missouri 27 

North Dakota n 

South Dakota 2 

Nebraska 12 

Kansas 9 

Western States 140 

California 48 

Colorado 7 

Washington 76 

Montana 3 

New Mexico 2 



37-5 

56.3 
4-1 



7 






NEGROES OF PHILADELPHIA 2& 

Oregon i 

Arizona i 

Idaho i 

Utah i 

Not specified 238 

At sea and under the U. S. flag 6 

Porto Rico 7 

Americans born abroad 24 

According- to this table ^j(> were born in New England, 
or 6 per 1,000; 25,233, or 415 per 1,000, were born in the 
Middle States, and 378, or about 6 per 1,000, were born in 
the Western States, while 34,739, or 571 per 1,000 were born 
in the South. The largest number were born in the State of 
Virginia — 16,369. 

Although Philadelphia's Negro colony is composed of 
only about one-third native-born Negroes, it still has a larger 
percentage of this class than either New York or Chicago. 
The former has about 37.3 per cent, of its Negro population^ 
born in New York State, while about 20 per cent, of Chicago's- 
Negro people were born in Illinois. The city Negro is a 
comparatively new development, and Philadelphia, in the- 
North, was one of the first centres to which migration poured.. 
This migration has in the main been steady, accelerated now 
and then by some social unrest in the South, such as the Den- 
mark- Veasie plot of 1822 at Charleston, S. C. ; the Nat Tur- 
ner insurrection of 1831 ; the emancipation and the end of 
the war, 1863- 1866; the disfranchisement in Virginia, or some 
new economic opportunity in Philadelphia, such as was af- 
forded by the filter plant operations and other public works. 
Higher wages in domestic service, better school facilities, bet- 
ter opportunities in business and the professions, are among. 



24 THE REVIEW 

other reasons why thousands of negroes come to the city each 
year. 

The great majority of those who come are young men 
and young women, the latter predominating. In 1900 there 
were 28,940 males and 33,673 females. These young people 
are largely between 20 and 35 years of age. In 1900 there 
were 13,260 under 15 years of age, and 40,767 between 15 
and 44 years, while 8,586 were above. 44 years of age. They 
are largely single, for out of the 62,613 there were but 23,203 
married persons. Thus in some respects the negro population 
differs from the average city population, but not greatly from 
the average immigrant population, except in the excess of fe- 
males. This latter fact is due to the general excess of fe- 
males in the Negro race, and to the greater demand for women 
workers who are largely in domestic service than for men. 

Since the Civil War the Negro population has increased 

more rapidly than the white population, as the following table 

will show : 

Negro pop. White pop. *Total pop. 

Year. No. Inc. No. Inc. No. 

2870 22,147 651,854 • • • • 674,022 

1880 31,699 43-13 815,362 25.08 847,170 

1890 39,371 24.20 1,006,590 23.42 1,046,964 

•1900 62,613 5900 1,229,673 22.02 1,293,697 

In the 30 years the Negro population increased 183 per 
cent., the white population 89 per cent, and the total population 
92 per cent. 

The negroes are more scattered over the city than for- 

*The totals include the Chinese and Indians, which are not 
included in either white or Negro column of the above table. 



NBGROES OF PHILADELPHIA 25 

merly ; and, with the exception of the Seventh ward, there is 
not much segregation on a large scale. The seventh ward had 
in 1900 10,462 Negroes. Other wards having large Negro 
population are the 22d, with about 4,000 Negroes; the 8th, 
2,600; 15th, 2,600; 27th, 3,500; 26th, 3,00; 30th, 6,000; 4th, 
3,000; 20th, 3,000; 24th, 2,300; 36th, 2,300. In 1900 the 
16th ward had only 102 Negroes; the 17th, 125; the 18th, 
only 18. 

The cause of the spread of the Negro population is the 
increased social surplus that the race has accumulated, which 
has permitted the better element to get out from under the 
tyranny of the renting agent. It is well known to every one 
conversant with Negro life that it was a few years ago, and is 
to-day, extremely difficult for a Negro to rent a house outside 
of the "black belt," where the rents were exceedingly high. 
Being shut in chiefly within the narrow streets and alleys, the 
Negroes are largely at the mercy of the unscrupulous renting 
agent, and sometimes they have been forced to pay as high 
$30 per month rent for a five-room house. That this is 
not entirely in the past, hundreds of instances are now in evi- 
dence. Of course, these poor Negroes cannot pay the high 
rent, so they sublet the house, or take only one room as an 
"apartment/' and permit the agent to rent the other "apart- 
^ merits" to other poor negroes. And to-day in some parts of 
the Seventh and Eighth wards a dirty, dilapidated, unsanitary, 
tmdrained, unplastered house of four rooms on first and second 
floors, two cellar rooms and one attic room is known to bring 
§28 and sometimes $32 per month, though it is not fit for re- 



26 THE REVIBW 

spectable pigs. It is done in this way : The "apartments, un- 
furnished/' are rented by the agent, who sometimes has an 
office in a skyscraper on Chestnut or some other prominent 
street, at $i to $2 per week, the tenant paying from $4 to $6 
for one room, and from $6 to $8 per month for two rooms, 
according as they are in the cellar, first or second floor, or 
attic. 

I visited one of these "apartments'' one day in a dirty, 
narrow alley — it was 12 feet wide. I met the careworn, un- 
derfed, illiterate woman who was the head of the family. She 
showed me into her apartment. 

"How many rooms have you?" I asked, 

"Two," she replied; "this one and the back cellar room." 

"What do you pay?" 

"Two dollars per week." 

"Who is your agent?" 

"Mr. , from the (a 16-story) building." 

I examined the place. No underdrainage, foul privy 
well, dark cellar room, plastering out of bedroom, and, worst 
of all, the poor woman said that the man, who gets $30 per 
month out of this house, which is assessed at $1,000, won't 
make any improvements as to plastering, underdrainage, etc. 

Renting agents generally seem to forget their morals 
when renting to Negroes. A most interesting specimen is 
that one who comes to the unsuspecting Negro claiming to be 
a philanthropist and willing "to rent a house to a Negro which 
has never been rented to Negroes before." In many cases 
this "philanthropist" does not make any improvement on the 



NKGROES OF PHILADELPHIA 27 

house. Often the whites who are leaving have mistreated it; 
but he shows his "great love for the colored race" (sometimes 
assuring his victim that his "father fought in the war for 
you people*' ) by raising the rent $2 to $6 per month. 

It is often amusing to hear some simple Negro victim 
who is paying $18 for the house which rented a month before 
to a white person for $16, tell of the virtues of his renting 

agent. "Mr. is such a good w'ite gent'man ; he loves 

colored folks ; he really does,'* says he in ignorant bliss. But 
it is just this oppression which has opened the eyes of the more 
thrifty Negroes and they are buying homes in many desirable 
parts of the city, often finding it cheaper, on the building and 
loan association plan, to buy a really desirable house than to 
rent a poor one. The Negroes have organized among them- 
selves about a half dozen building associations, the largest be- 
ing the Berean, which has made loans for the purchase of 
about 150 homes. To-day Negroes own property worth at least 
$10,000,000 in this city, and their are estates running as high 
as a half million. 

But it would be unfair to the renting agents to say that 
they are all unscrupulous when it conies to Negroes. They 
have their hardships, too. Owners sometimes say ''don't rent 
to Negroes," and they obey. Other tenants say they will 
move out if Negroes move next door to them. And so the 
agent has troubles of his own. There are some conscientious, 
agents who try to better the housing conditions, but they are 
few. Notable among them, however, is the Octavia Hill As- 
sociation, which rents scores of houses to the poorest class of 



28 THE REVIEW 

Negroes in Lombard, Rodman and Naudain streets, near Sev- 
enth, and in most cases charges a reasonable rent and keeps 
the houses up to a certain standard of decency. 

The last twenty years have seen a bettering of conditions. 
Except a few home-owners the better class of Negroes have 
largely moved out of the east end of the Seventh ward, going 
further west and south, securing better houses on better streets, 
but still, in the case of the renters, paying high rents. Some- 
times the tenants living next door to> the newly arrived Negro 
family threaten to move, and occasionally they carry out their 
threats; sometimes they build a partition between themselves 
and their Negro neighbor, as was done by one family to shield 
itself from a negro Princeton graduate — now a most valuable 
citizen — and in another case to prevent contamination from 
a Negro bishop. In due time, however, the partitions and cur- 
tains are removed, and instances are 'known where good fel- 
lowship has been established. In nearly every case only a few 
months' contact convinces most people that Negro neighbors 
are not so bad after all. 

II. 

According to the census of 1900 a larger per cent, of Ne- 
groes were engaged in gainful occupations than for the coun- 
try at large — 84.1 out of a hundred Negro males over ten 
years, and 40.7 per cent, of the Negro females were returned 
as having gainful occupations, while for the country at large 
the percentages were 80.0 for the males and 18.8 for the fe- 
males. In Philadelphia, as in the rest of the country, a lar- 
ger per cent, of Negroes have gainful occupations than whites. 



NEGROES OF PHILADELPHIA 29 

This is very noticeable in the case of the women. Fifty out 
of every hundred Philadelphia Negro females over ten years 
old are engaged in gainful occupations, as against 27.8 per 
cent, for the whole city. 

The occupations most generally followed by the men are y 
according to the census, as follows : 7,690 laborers, 4,378 ser- 
vants and waiters, 1,957 teamsters, draymen and hackmen, 
921 porters and helpers in stores, 444 barbers and hairdress- 
ers, 346 messengers and errand boys, 308 brick and stone ma- 
sons, 297 retail merchants. 

The work of the women is chiefly as follows: 10,522 
servants and waitresses, 1,344 laundresses, 717 dressmakers, 
392 housekeepers and stewardesses, 121 steamstresses and 104 
boarding house keepers. 

The following table shows the division of the Negroes of 
Philadelphia among the different classes of occupations: 

Number Percentage 

Males. Females. Males. Females. 

Total population 28,940 33,673 

Total at work 21,128 14,095 100.0 . 100.0 

Professions 415 170 2.0 1.2 

Domestic and personal service. 13,726 12,920 64.9 91.7 
Manufacturing and mechanical 

pursuits 2,155 896 10.2 6.3 

Agricultural 213 1 1.1 

Trade and Transportation 4,619 108 21.8 0.8 

The table shows a great concentration of the Negroes, 
and especially the women workers, in domestic and personal 
service. There were in 1900 71,694 male domestic workers 
in the city, of whom Negroes comprised 19. 1 per cent., and 
52,057 females in domestic service, of whom Negro feirmlcs 



30 THE REVIEW 

comprised 22.9 per cent. To the social student, however, the 
most significant fact is not that most Negroes are in domestic 
service, but that an increasing number fill other employments. 
To-day hundreds of Negroes fill positions in the city which 
were practically beyond the reach of their race forty years 
.ago. The present generation has seen the rise of the profes- 
sional class among Negroes, the semi-professional class and 
the large entrepreneur. The leaders of Negro society before 
the war were largely among the caterers, head waiters and 
coachmen ; it is not so to-day. 

In the professions the census of 1900 gave 415 males and 
170 females, 585 in all. There are today at least 1,000 Ne- 
groes in that class, including physicians and surgeons, clergy- 
men, dentists, teachers, electricians, architects, artists, musi- 
cians, lawyers, journalists, civil engineers 'and surveyors, lit- 
erary and scientific persons, actors, etc. ; in fact, in nearly ev- 
ery branch of professional service. Another comparatively 
new line is the so-called semi-professional service, including 
clerks, stenographers and typewriters, agents, bookkeepers, 
etc. Their rise in large numbers has been comparatively re- 
cent. Of the above there are now about 1,100 in Philadel- 
phia. 

The entrepreneur class has in the past twenty years made 
great improvement, both in the amount of capital invested 
and the character of the operations. The census of 1900 gave 
297 males and 22 female retail merchants and dealers, and 10 
wholesale. Besides these, there were 13 hotel keepers, 253 
boarding house keepers, saloonkeepers and others. In the 



NEGROES OF PHILADELPHIA 31 

past five years there has been a great increase of the numbers 
in the above classes of business, except the saloons. Into new 
lines of business unknown to the Negro in slavery times 
many Philadelphia Negroes have gone. One runs a men's 
furnishing store, another a drug* store, others groceries, meats, 
etc.- The beneficial society has grown to a regular insurance 
company, the renting ag*ent has become a real estate dealer; 
individuals have combined and corporations have been formed. 
\\ ithin the past twelve months there have been incorporated 
among the Negroes two realty companies, one land investment 
company, four building and loan associations, one manufac- 
turing company, one insurance company, besides a number of 
other smaller concerns. 

The civil service has proved of advantage to the Negro 
of Philadelphia, as of every other large Northern city. In 
the postoffice there are about 150 clerks, carriers and other 
employes; on the police force about 70 patrolmen, and 40 
school teachers and about 200 persons in other municipal of- 
fices. 

But the great majority of Negroes are in common labor. 
( )ne of the largest, if not the largest, employer of Negro labor 
is the Midvale Steel Company, which of late has been so suc- 
cessful in its bids against the Steel Trust for armor plate for 
the United States Government. Mr. Charles J. Harrah, the 
president of this company, said before the United States In- 
dustrial Commission in 1900 concerning his Negro labor: 

"We have fully 800 or 1,000 colored men. The balance 
are Americans, Irish and Germans. The colored labor we 






32 THE REVIEW 

have is excellent. * * * They are lusty fellows. We 
have some with shoulders twice as broad as mine, and with 
chests twice as deep as mine. The men come up here ignorant 
and untutored. We teach them the benefit of discipline. We 
teach the colored man the benefit of thrift, and coax him to 
open a bank account ; and he generally does it, and in a short 
time has money in it, and nothing can stop him from adding 
money to that bank account. We have no colored men who- 
drink." Asked as to the friction between the white and black 
workmen, Mr. Harrah replied : "Not a bit of it. They work 
cheek by jowl w 7 ith Irish, and when the Irishman has a fes- 
tivity at home he has colored men invited. We did it with 
trepidation. We introduced one man at first to sweep up the 
yard, and w r e noticed the Irish and Germans looked at him 
askance. Then we put another. Then we put them in the 
boiler room, and then we. got them in the open hearth and in 
the forge, and gradually we got them everywhere. They are 
intelligent and docile, and when they come in as laborers, un- 
skilled, they gradually become skilled, and in the course of 
time we will make excellent foremen out of them." Mr. Har- 
rah added that there was "absolutely no difference" in wages 
of negroes and whites in the same grade of work. 

In domestic service there are various testimonies about 
negro workers. Ask one person and you are led to believe 
they are losing ground; they are less competent than formerly, 
etc. Ask another, and the testimony is reversed. One lady 
says they are dishonest, another says they are more honest 
than the average; one says they are impudent; another says 



NEGROES OF PHILADELPHIA 3£ 

their great point is docility; and so it goes. Miss Isabel Eaton 
has very excellently summarized this medley of opinions about 
Negro domestic servants in her study of domestic service pub- 
lished by the University of Pennsylvania in "The Philadelphia 
Negro." Her study seems to emphasize the fact that domes- 
tic service is still a "belated industry" for blacks as well as 
whites. Still, whatever may be the trouble, Lombard street 
employment agents say they cannot possibly supply the demand 
for Negro servants. 

It is in the skilled trades that the Negroes are at the 
greatest disadvantage. And it is in this relation that the sys- 
tem of education in Philadelphia has shown the least practical 
results so' far as the mass of Negroes is concerned. Negroes 
have been largely shut out of mechanical trades, partly be- 
cause of indifference and occasional active hostility of labor 
unions, partly because it has been difficult to overcome the 
traditional notion that a "Negro's place" is in domestic ser- 
vice, but chiefly because there has been very little and prac- 
tically no opportunity for Negroes to learn trades. Those 
Negroes who know skilled trades and follow them are prin- 
cipally men from the South, who learned their trades there- 
The poorest of them fall into domestic service; the best have 
found places at their trades. For the Negro boy who is born 
in this city it is difficult to acquire a trade. And here, I say, 
the system has been weakest. 

It has been possible for the Negro boys to complete their 
cojurses in the public schools, go to the normal school, the uni- 
versity, the various professional schools and fit themselves as 



34 THE REVIEW 

lawyers, doctors, dentists, artists, etc. A few of the most 
energetic who are not able to go to the university are fitted to 
take the civil service positions, and a still fewer number to 
start some sort of small independent business. But the great 
majority cannot enter the civil service, cannot enter the pro- 
fessions, cannot do so-called semi-professional work. There 
is but one other avenue open for the negro boy — domestic 
service. The inconveniences of domestic service need not here 
be entered upon. But because there is no other opening there 
is likely to be an overcrowding of the professions with infer- 
ior and incompetent men who desire to escape domestic ser- 
vice. On the other hand, there will likely be many discon- 
tented and, therefore, largely inefficient persons in 'domestic 
service. The white boy can get an apprenticeship, and the 
schools have not, as a rule, seen fit to provide him a trade. 
But the Negro boy is practically shut out of all apprentice- 
ship. He can rarely learn a trade unless he goes South. It 
seems, therefore, that the school system has largely missed his 
case in a most fundamental way. The result is, the Negro 
boy who is educated in Philadelphia, spending eight or ten 
years in school, is often less prepared for the battle of life than 
the boy who has spent a similar time or less in a Southern 
Negro industrial school, such as Hampton Institute. 

To enable Negroes to learn trades is a very desirable 
thing from many points of view. At present the men who are 
in domestic service are largely unable to support their families 
because of very low wages. This necessitates the working 
of an abnormally large number of women and children. En- 



NEGROES OF PHILADELPHIA 35 

larged opportunities in the trades will remedy this to some ex- 
tent, and will also open a natural avocation for the growing- 
middle class of Negroes and will prevent the overstocking of 
the professions or the forcing into domestic service of men who 
cannot but be discontented. 

There are at present about 3,000 men in manufacturing 
and mechanical pursuits; of these about 1,900 are in the so- 
called skilled trades. Practically all of these were born in the 
South. The more successful of them inform me that if there 
were more Negroes who were skilled workmen, places could 
be found for them without very great difficulty. 

I shall conclude this chapter with a restatement of what 
I have just said, namely, that any careful study of the econo- 
mic life of Negroes in Philadelphia cannot but reveal the 
great drawback it is to the race to be concentrated largely in 
domestic service, and the only possible remedy for it in the 
present situation is the establishment of trade schools in the 
neighborhoods where Negroes live. Many of the best Ne- 
groes will object to this on the ground of drawing the color 
line. I shall not discuss this feature. It can be worked out 
later. It is not necessary to draw the color line. I only say 
and emphasize this, that aside from what other boys in Phil- 
adelphia need, Negro boys certainly need trade schools. 

{To be Concluded.) 



36 THE REVIEW 



IV 

THEODORE TILTON— 183 5- 1907. 



[Dr. R. C. Ransom, of Boston, Mass., than whom, as a warm admirer 
of Mr. Tilton, there is no fitter man among us to pen a tribute, gives us 
in the following appreciation something as beautiful as his subject. We 
;ire happy in being able to present it to Review readers. Editor.} 



"The gods are dead, — and all the godlike men 

Are dying too ! How fast they disappear ! 
J. H or Death seems discontent to fill the grave 

With common bones, but downward to his den 
Drags, like a greedy monster, year by year, 

The men most missed — the good, the wise, the brave!" 

Self exiled, Theodore Tilton breathed his last upon a 
foreign shore. Few American men of letters have stood 
upon the threshold of their career with more promising pros- 
pects of a brilliant future. Nature bestowed her choicest 
gifts upon him with a lavish hand. Physically "his form 
was like Apollo's/' he was six feet, four inches in height and 
straight as an arrow. He was both a poet and an orator, 
while his pen wrought powerfully in the creation of potential 
literature. He was the idol of a select company of intel- 
lectuals who, through their influence, opened wide to him tin 
door of opportunity. But in the prime of his manhood, al 
the height of the exercise of his splendid powers, the sun of 
his ascendency was eclipsed at noon by the dark shadow oi 
a domestic tragedy. . 

Theodore Tilton was born October 2, 1835. He was 



THEODORE TlLTON 37 

educated in the public schools of New York City and gradu- 
ated from New York College. He became a member of Ply- 
mouth Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. He took down the first ver- 
batim stenographic reports of Henry Ward Beecher's ser- 
mons that were ever published. Under the inspiration of Mr. 
Beecher he early allied himself with the Abolitionists in es- 
pousing the cause of freedom. 

He was an intimate of Garrison, Phillips, Sumner, Gree- 
ley, Ben Wade, Frederick Douglass, Lucretia Mott, Whittier, 
and others. He was one of the escorts to John Brown's body, 
which was secretly carried from Philadelphia to New York. 
John Brown's wife was at his house when a message from 
the condemned man told her not to come. He was at Fort 
Sumter in 1865 when the American flag was rehoisted. He 
was editor of the New York Independent from 1856 to 1871, 
succeeding Henry Ward Beecher as Editor-in-Chief about 
the year 1861. He founded the Golden Age in 1871, which 
he edited for nearly four years. Next to Mr. Beecher he 
was one of the most popular men upon the American lecture 
platform. 

The Negro in America never had a more loyal friend 
and fearless advocate. When statesmen hesitated and timid 
or lukewarm friends wavered, Tilton stood firm and aggres- 
sive. In a speech entitled, "The Negro," delivered by Mr. 
Tilton in Cooper Institute, New York, May 12, 1863, among 
other things he said : "The opposition is no longer to the 
slave, it is to the Negro. There is a sworn enmity to the 
black man, whether under the yoke or free. Who, then, is 
e Negro? What is his rank among men? Send men to 






38 THE REVIEW 

seek for the Negro, .and where will they look? They will 
look under their own feet, for they keep him down to trample 
on! Lift him up and ask, Who is he? and what do men an- 
swer? An inferior man, a half-gifted child of God. A 
white man looking, down upon a Negro straightway lifts him- 
self up an inch higher into a fool's pride! Do you say the 
Negro race is inferior? No man can yet pronounce that judg- 
ment safely. It may be that the Negro race on their own 
continent — in the long future — growing strong as other na- 
tions grow weak — holding the soil in one hand and the sea 
in the other — may yet rise to be the dominant, superior race 
of the world. Now, what is it that I ask for the Negro? J 
ask nothing more than for the white man — nothing less. 1 
ask nothing more than for myself — nothing less. First of 
all, I ask that he shall not be held a slave. I ask that aftei 
he is free he shall not be oppressed by those cruel laws whicl 
degrade him to a secondary slavery in this free state. I asl 
that in the State of New York he shall go to the ballot box • 
subject to the same restrictions as white men, and subject to 
no other. I ask that he shall take his seat in the jury box 
to perform his part in those honorable services from which 
no white man escapes. I ask that he be eligible to every po- 
litical office to which white men are eligible 

"We are not to have in America a Negro race of un- 
mingled blood. Great nations get the fibre of their strength 
from mixed blood. The history of the world's civilization is 
written in one word — which many are afraid to speak — 
which many more are afraid to hear — and that is amalga- 
mation. 






THEODORE TILTON 39 

Now, after a lapse of more than thirty years, men can- 
not discuss dispassionately the great moral and social tragedy 
in which Theodore Tilton played such a conspicuous part; a 
tragedy which fell like a blast from heaven out of a peaceful 
sky. Henry Ward Beecher, his most intimate friend and as- 
sociate, the greatest preacher that ever graced an American 
pulpit, the weight of whose influence as a reformer was felt 
not only throughout this country, but in Europe, was accused 
of improper intimacy with his wife. The scandal shook" the 
religious and social circles of America to their very founda- 
tions. Some charged that Tilton' s accusation was due to jeal- 
ousy and envy of Beecher s prestige and popularity, others 
even cried blackmail. There were others, however, who sided 
with Tilton and did not hold Mr. Beecher to be blameless, but 
neither the courts of law nor the weight of American public 
opinion was willing to sacrifice Mr. Beecher. The jury that 
tried Mr. Beecher disagreed just about in proportion that pub- 
lic opinion throughout the nation was divided. 

After this Tilton seemed to feel that this country was 
not large enough to hold him and Mr. Beecher at the same 
time. In 1883, he went to Paris, never again to return to his 
native land, save for one brief visit. There he remained a 
literary recluse, refusing to meet Americans unless they spec- 
ially requested to be presented to him. lie walked the boule- 
vards of Paris a picturesque figure, giving no sign save that 
of his impressive reserve, of a heart tragedy which had cut 
short his career, wrecked his home, cast a shadow upon one 
of the greatest names of the American pulpit, and left him a 
pathetic and solitary figure in a land of strangers. 



40 THE REVIEW 

"Love, homeless, and forlorn ; 

Love, beggered, tattered, torn ; 

Love, robbed by fate ; 

Of all its fair estate 

'Till naught remains its own; 

No pillow for its head, 

Except a stone, — " 

These lines, quoted from a sonnet written by Mr. Tilton 
years ago, may perhaps give an inward glance into his heart. 

Between Theodore Tilton and Frederick Douglass there 
existed the warmest friendship and affection. No more beau- 
tiful and affectionate tribute was ever paid by a man to a 
departed friend than that which Tilton wrote on the death 
of Frederick Douglass, a few stanzas of which are quoted 
here: 

"I knew the noblest giants of my day, 

And he was of them, — strong amid the strong: 
But gentle too: for though he suffered wrong, » •» 

i Yet the wrong-doer never heard him say v j 

^Thee also do I hate !' 

"Proud is the happy grief with which I sing; 
For, O my Country ! in the paths of men 
There never walked a grander man than he ! 
He was a peer of princes — yea a king! 

Crowned in the shambles and the prison-pen ! 
The noblest Slave that ever God set free ! 

''How does it happen that, in every clime, n 

When any groaning nation of the earth „ . . ■* 

Hath need of some new leader of a race, 
Or some true prophet of a better time, 
The Heavens elect him for his lowly birth, 

Ere they uplift him to his lofty place? i 

X T answer : He must first be taught to know — 

(I say to know, and not to guess) — how real * "» 

Is all the misery which he hopes to heal ! 
The high may show a kindness to the low: 
Some wealthy lord is generous, — be it so : 

Yet who except the poor and pinched can feel 
* Their pang of poverty? ... 

So for their v I, 
They need a champion who has borne their woel 



THEODORE TILTON 41 

"Chief of his tribe, he centered in his soul — 
As their evangel — all their hopes and fears! 
— Through all his lifetime, as their wisest head, 
Me planned to lead them to some happy goal! 
(How they will lack him in the coming years, 
How wish him back among them, from the dead!) 

"His form was like Apollo's, and his brow 

Like what the sculptors carve for Zeus's own — 
As godlike as was ever cut in stone ! 

For if the old god Thor were living now, 

With his dark visage, with his frosty pow, 

And with his awe-inspiring thunder-tone, — 

Such a resembling pair (could both be known) 

Would pass for twin-born brothers, I avow! 

"Spake I of goodly giants in the land? 

And did I boast that I had known them well? 

I was a stripling: so I live to tell, 
In these degenerate days, how great and grand, 
How plain and simple, were the noble band 

Who cried to Heaven against that crime of Hell 

Which to the auction-block brought Babes to sell, 
And which on Women burnt a market-brand ! , . 

"Who were those heroes? Since the roll is known 
I need not call it: Lincoln was the chief: 

The rest were legion, — name them whoso can : 
But whoso counts the list of Freedom's Own 

Must name the Chattel whom, with pride and grief, 
We buried yesterday and called a Man!" 

Theodore Tilton is dead. He fell asleep in Paris, May 
25th, 1907. He was buried there from the little American 
Church, with only thirty persons present to pay their tribute 
of respect and honor. He died the last survivor of the tragedy 
which will live long in American annals. He believed in God. 
Let us hope, that even now, his wounded heart has been for- 
ever healed with balm of Gilead applied by the wounded hand 
of Him who was also "a man of sorrows and acquainted with 



grief." 



Reverdy C. Ransom. 



42 THE REVIEW 



V 
THE CAUCASIAN. 



To make the earth an increasing comfort, and a source 
of happiness for the ever-expanding human race, has taxed 
and ever will tax the energy and wisdom of man. He is 
progressing. Linked with his evolution is the growing ap- 
preciation of the claims of universal brotherhood. The hu- 
man family with the lapse of each century is coming better 
to understand itself, and consequently there is a correspond- 
ing desire for the betterment of all the branches of the family. 
Notwithstanding the painful manifestation of racial preju- 
dice, the noble characters and splendid geniuses of the hither- 
to backward races challenge attention and compel respect. 

With a growing spirit for universal elevation, the en- 
lightened portion of the world can not possibly be satisfied 
with the present deplorable condition of a large part of its 
population. In Africa, Australia, Oceanica, China, Europe,, 
and sections of the Western world, there is a loud and con- 
stant outcry against man's inhumanity and brutalizing prac- 
tices. The world will not continue to tolerate the cruel deeds 
which have distressed and degraded man. Therefore, the re- 
leasing of him from oppression and destructive environments,, 
and putting him in a position so that he may develop and un- 
fold himself as designed by his Maker, regardless of racial 



THE CAUCASIAN 4>> 

affiliation, is an ever-increasing consideration and a subject 
of growing importance. 

Fraternalism, fostered and strengthened by the benevo- 
lent principles embodied in the golden rule, must be the mea- 
sure of conduct. Along with this improvement necessarily 
w^ill come a constant need of the readjustment of the relation 
of the races, and therefore, a necessity for a recasting of in- 
ternational law, which I hope, some day, will be synonymous 
with inter-racial law. A race moved by the dictates of its 
own crude selfish policy, as a result of such narrowness, will 
drift in the rear and become a victim of its own suicidal ef- 
forts. Racial arrogance and oppression are a menace and 
will be regarded by all peoples of advanced ethical training 
as diametrically opposed to true liberty and the essential prin- 
ciples of human development. The spirit of future civiliza- 
tion will be to place all men upon a better and surer founda- 
tion. The effort will not only be to train well, but that train- 
ing will be suited to and in harmony with progressive liberty 
and moral worth. 

We hear much, in this enlightened age, of race assimi- 
lation, race integrity, race inheritance, and race instinct. 
What is race but a limb of the human tree? And as such it ' 
is as much dependent upon the parent stock as every branch 
of a tree is dependent upon its trunk and roots. Race is a 
gift limited by, and in some degree, dependent upon, the whole 
race of man; for that none of us liveth to himself, and no 
man dieth to himself, is as true of races as of individuals. 
All history proves that it was impossible for the Caucasian 
to have attained his present position, without the helping hand 



44 THE REVIEW 

•of the Negro and other races. The Anglo-Saxon is probably 
the best exponent of their race. Who can tell what would 
have been their present status without the Negro? We know 
he has been a powerful force in assisting them to reach their 
present position of distinguished greatness. 

Every race possesses special fitness and adaptation for cer- 
tain lines of work, and is absolute master within the sphere of 
its specific labor. Therefore, each, through foreordination, is 
an important and, indeed, indispensable factor in the uplift 
of mankind. Not only has each its own allotted work as- 
signed, but also special ages as well. When we take into con- 
sideration the multitudinous needs of man, so widely separ- 
ated, with great differences and strongly marked habits and 
peculiar temperament, it is utterly impossible for any particu- 
lar race, no matter what may be its gifts and attainments, to 
accomplish what is clearly designed and assigned to the whole 
human family. 

For many centuries the Indo-European peoples have been 
•occupying the center of the stage. They are leaders of the 
-intellectual and religious life of the world. Though not the 
originators, they are the best exponents of modern civiliza- 
tion. This distinction has given them great prestige; thus, 
for ages they have been "The observed of all observers," and 
the admiration of all races. They are a virile people, thriv- 
ing best in temperate latitudes, with little or no fitness for 
tropical regions ; after the first generation there, they signally 
fail to maintain their racial standard. Some take this as a 
complete refutation of the gratuitous assertion that they are 
and always will be the superior race. A distinguished ethnol- 



THE CAUCASIAN 4<> 

ogist claims that the Caucasians are a mixed race, a cross be- 
tween the yellow and black. Perhaps an evidence of it lies- 
in its inhuman treatment of other races; for barbarity is a 
marked characteristic of the lowest element of the yellow and 
black races. However this may be, we know that the Cau- 
casian race is wonderfully cohesive, and is specially gifted with 
genius for initiative; no race excels it in organizing power 
and administrative ability. Its adaptation, its intellectual 
greatness, its quick sympathy, its subtlety, and its shrewdness,, 
give it a wide and commanding influence ; although it is ham- 
pered by an intense and irreconcilable selfishness. It is, in 
a marked degree, a self-centered race; the whole force of its 
character is concentrated and directed for its own uplift and 
advancement. Its dauntless ambition, its restlessness and end- 
less striving for superiority intensify its life; and give it a 
color which is not the reflection of its best self. This feature 
of Caucasian character in general, and the Anglo-Saxon in 
particular, has caused the advanced thinkers and leaders of 
the other races seriously to doubt Caucasian sincerity and hon- 
esty of purpose in the intercourse with the darker races. 
Viewed in the light of their recent history, it does seem that 
they have a double standard of conduct. Indeed, it is cer- 
tain, the Golden Rule has little binding force, and is not a 
sufficient restraint upon their lust for wealth and dominion 
when the lower races are concerned. The following is from 
an editorial of the Baltimore American, and is indisputable 
evidence of the unfairness of the so-called superior race: 

"In considering the relations between the United States 
and Asiatic countries, a proposition that will be hardly dis- 



46 THE REVIEW 

puted is, that we should at least practice honesty in our deal- 
ings with them Although far more moderate in 

our demands than some European powers, we exacted an in- 
ordinately large sum from the Chinese government after the 
Peking expedition of 1901, to cover claims for damages sus- 
tained through the Boxer uprising. Those claims were so 
grossly exaggerated that after all were ascertained and paid 
there remained a balance of nearly $22,000,000 of the indem- 
nity fund. Secretary Hay advised that Congress should au- 
thorize the return to China of the entire excess, but no action 

has yet been taken The question involved is simply 

that of national honesty/' 

The progress and development of the world, under the 
tutelage of the European race, is as special as it is great. It 
has long been their boast, and asserted with greater emphasis 
than ever, that they are so blessed by heaven with superior 
greatness, as to constitute them ad infinitum divinely appoint- 
ed leaders. We note, however, in connection with this ex- 
travagant claim, that their efforts, with a very few lame ex- 
ceptions, have been only directed toward their own race. 

The Mediterranean Sea, which "Washes the face of 
Afric's dusty brow," played an important part in Grecian and 
Roman civilization. Yet Africa slumbered long on the lap 
of time, with her secrets locked in her own bosom. For three 
European peoples. Kingdoms and empires rose out of the 
thousand years history is replete with the development of the 
mud of barbarism and the stifling dust of superstition and 
paralyzing ignorance. The struggle for superiority was not 
only for national glory and dominion, but also in the direc- 



THE CAUCASIAN 47 

tion of larger liberty and religious freedom. All Europe at 
times was a camping ground of contending armies. Out of 
the conflict came stronger and more efficient governments; 
and with the governmental development, and as a natural 
•consequence, came a greater thirst for a higher degree of in- 
tellectual attainments. Both social and political life became 
more complex and more earnest ; it sent its roots deeper into 
the national soil. Consequently there was an uninterrupted 
growth of widening responsibility; the powers were less im- 
pulsive and more responsive to the demands of racial preser- 
vation and expansion. 

With all of its interesting and instructive history and 
large opportunities, it has not civilized and Christianized a sin- 
gle nation out of the limits of its own lineage. Whenever it 
has come in direct contact and competition with other peoples, 
its disposition and custom have been to destroy or to cripple 
and keep them dependent. Notwithstanding its profuse re- 
ligious pretension and exuberant enthusiasm for Christian 
missions, it has carried the Bible in one hand and the gun in 
the other. It teacnes die Golden Rule theoretically but practi- 
cally that "might makes right." The flag follows the mis- 
sionary. Ceylon, Hawaii, Samoa, and Philippines, Uganda, 
Congo State, Australia, West, East and South Africa, and 
India, are part of their colonial system, as well as their mis- 
sionary field. King Mtesa's Macedonian cry from darkest 
Africa has been answered with British Bibles and hymn books, 
Tier bayonets and her flag. 

Although the Caucasian is under the masterful influence 
of a barbarous cupidity, it is pre-eminentlv an intellectual race. 



48 THE REVIEW 

With martyr devotion it has given itself to severe and thor- 
ough mental culture. The splendor of its achievements, and 
its glorious triumphs over seeming- impossibility are, without 
doubt, its grandest and proudest monuments. It does seem 
the object for which God created these peoples, so largely and 
magnificently endowed, is to unfold, to train, and develop the 
intellectual side of man's nature. 

The ethical development of the Occidental peoples is due 
directly to the Hebrew people. They have given the world 
the Bible and the purest and best moral system the human 
family has had. This was their mission. The Caucasian has 
a mission. Never in the history of the world has there been 
a wider spread of letters; learning permeates the masses.. 
The earth has never had so many schools of learning and such 
an army of educated and learned men. There is little excuse 
for ignorance; the founding of schools and libraries is almost 
a mania among the w r ealthy classes. Says Mr. Nash in" his 
"History of the Higher Criticism of the New Testament" : 
"Nature stands before us with a full and eager mind. To lis- 
ten to her reverently, to go outside the bounds of our present 
knowledge in order to learn new things, and by learning to 
enrich and strengthen our race in its struggles against the con- 
ditions that have enslaved us, this is the ideal of mental life 
that inspires and disciplines the highest reason of our time." 

The result of this intense intellectual activity is the birth 
of a merciless commercialism. The money-gathering and 
money-loving Caucasian ransacks seas and continents, tames 
the dangerous lightning, rides it like a steed, tunnels moun- 
tains, and rivers, oppresses and degrades whomsoever he can,. 



THE CAUCASIAN 49 

enslaves some and robs all to enrich and aggrandize himself. 

An African traveler, writing about white men in the Congo 
says: "They are a most interesting lot of adventurers, French, 
Belgian, Italian, Norwegian, Danish, and renegade British 
and American. If you could line them up, you would have 
a motley regiment indeed. Most of the men would be beard- 
ed or unshaven, long haired, unkempt and un-uni formed, in 
anything from a half suit of gaudy pajamas and undervest to 
a decayed survival of an ancient suit of reach-me-downs. A 
few would be in spotless ducks and white pith helmets, these 
being the civil officers; the rest would be military men, array- 
ed in resplendent uniforms of blue and gold He 

falls ill, he takes his quinine and whiskey or fermented native 
liquor. Why did he come? For money; money for himself 
and for his family. He must get enough to get a fresh start 
in Europe." 

Another eye witness writes : "The frequent wars upon the 
natives, undertaken without any motive by State soldiers sent 
out to get rubber and ivory, are depopulating the country. 
The soldiers find that the quickest and cheapest method is to 
raid villages, sieze prisoners and have them redeemed after- 
ward with ivory." 

The handless African because of failure to gather and 
bring in the allotted task of rubber, the multitude of human 
skeletons which lie along the foot-path, from the interior of 
"darkest Africa" to the Portuguese colony on the west coast; 

I the lamentations in German Africa, begging the Christian 
euton to cease slaughtering the innocent and helpless women 
id children to satisfy their lust of power and of wealth; the 
4 



50 THE REVIEW 

long dark night of cruel slavery of the Western world, and the 

painful annihilation of the North American Indian, are the 
outcome of that ceaseless commercialism which continually 
feeds the insatiable and unrestrained ambition of this race of 
oppressors. Now, by reason of the marvelous lack of fair- 
ness in their intercourse with the backward peoples, it does 
seem that they are nowise in a position effectively to teach 
and amply to illustrate through their race life, those uniform 
and welding ideas of universal brotherhood, so fully explained 
in the Golden Rule. Indeed, it is difficult to understand how 
a people can be under its salutary influence and not appre- 
ciate applied Christianity. The following quotation from a 
chapter of the great American Republic is a good illustra- 
tion : "No one can look at one of the photographs of a lynch- 
ing without a sense of abysmal horror/' says the American 
Magazine. It is not horror alone, or chiefly of the thing it- 
self, the ugly inanimate center of the tragedy; it is the faces 
of the spectators that shock our very soul. They are always 
laughing faces. Good nature, even jollity, seems to be the 
note of these gatherings. Always we see the faces of little 
boys grinning cheerfully toward the camera. There are wo- 
men sometimes in the crowd, and sometimes little girls. There 
as no sign in these pictures of the horror of death, even of 
;grim satisfaction over a difficult task. The man who called 
it a lynching bee' appreciated the true feeling of the lynchers. 
Leave out the grim wretch in the center, and the picture might 
be taken for an ordinary cheerful gathering at a country fair. 
Leave it in, and, oh, my brothers, it is not the dead, but the 
Jiving, that terrifies." 



THE CAUCASIAN 5 1 

There is a striking analogy between the Hebrew nation 
and the Caucasian race. The former came upon the stage un- 
der peculiar circumstances, and was given a specific work; 
and when it was accomplished they were forced from the arena 
because of their stubborn will and misguided judgment. 
Though their moral code is the soul of modern civilization, 
vet with all their spiritual enlightenment, they failed to retain 
their right-mindedness and hence misinterpreted the spirit of 
that new and invincible force which is reforming and ever 
exalting humanity. Consequently they are an effete nation, 
a national derelict, drifting on the ocean of time. Is history 
repeating itself in the life of the Caucasian? Perhaps they 
have reached the highest stage of efficiency and arrested pro- 
gress is about to set in. The many centuries of interrupted 
success probably seriously have affected their judgment and 
weakened their spiritual apprehension. Every race under the 
sun accuses them at the bar of justice; it is an undeniable fact, 
their conduct is a long series' of flagrant violations of the spirit 
and letter of the Decalogue. 

Unless it enlarges its vision and becomes great-hearted 
enough to rise above its selfish wall of degrading prejudice, 
and truly believes and practically demonstrates that the broth- 
erhood of man outw r eighs the claims and exactions of race, 
they must vacate the stage; for mankind will have received 
all that they have of any value to give. Kidd, in his inter- 
esting book on "Social Evolution/' says: "As the process of 
development proceeds it must become increasingly evident that 
the advanced races will have no power, in virtue of their in- 
tellectual characteristics alone, to continue to retain the posi- 



52 THE REVIEW 

tion of ascendency they have hitherto enjoyed throughout the 
world; and that if they have no other secret of rule than this, 
the sceptre is destined eventually to pass from them.'' 

The ethical development and the modernizing of the East- 
ern peoples is most rapid and very significant. The centuries 
may not be far distant, when the Orientals will have a com- 
manding, and perhaps a controlling-, influence in the affairs 
of nations. Thev have, beyond doubt, a higher mission and 
must sooner or later take tire place assigned them, and must 
meet the requirements of their responsible position. 

Joseph G. Bryant. 






RELIGIOUS 



53 




THE CHRISTIAN AND AMUSEMENTS. 



Dr. Edward Judson says in Christian Work, the development of the 
instinct for play is one of the most striking features of the advance of 
civilization during the last quarter of a century. The working man de- 
mands more leisure for recreation. Holidays are mulitplied. The public 
goes mad over football, baseball, basket-ball, and boat races. People go 
earlier to the country and stay later. The cities arc environed by an end- 
less succession of parks, beaches and summer resorts. In old times there 
were only hunting and fishing. Now we take up one by one, croquet, lawn- 
lennis, golf, the kodak, the bicycle, the motor cycle, the automobile. The 
world is learning how to play. This is one of the key-notes of our age. 

What is the Christian attitude toward all this? Is it right for the 
follower of Christ to play? What view shall he take of doubtful pleasures, 
as smoking and wine-drinking and card-playing and dancing and theatre- 
going? Feeling his way through the intricate labyrinth of modern society, 
has the Christian any clue? 

While these questions cannot be answered off-hand, there are certain 
clear principles that guide us like heavenly constellations : 

i. The first condition of moral insight is the surrendered will, an 
.absolute willingness to take either one of two alternative courses that seems 
to us more right. Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God, 
Onr self-will, like breath, makes a little film on the window pane so that 
we cannot sec clearly the vision of beauty that lies beyond. If our will 
be to do his will, we shall feel the presence of the firm hand that guides 
us. Conscience must be obeyed, right or wrong. 

2. Our own conscience must be used. We must decide for ourselves. 
Each man must give answer for himself to God. We must not look around 
for some stronger nature against which to lean. This is the wrong use to 
which to put a minister. Ik- is not a kind of priest to silence or intensify 
jour scruples. The New Testament even gives no categorical answers to 
these social questions. It lays down great principles so that our moral 
sense may be strengthened by grasping them and applying them to each 
case. We are not to depend upon others for an answer, but to train our 
own conscience by keeping it in constant use, as a hunter's eyesight grows 
keen through his frequent and sustained efforts to perceive small game m 
the thick woods. The priestly way of deciding such questions, one for 
another, causes the moral vision of the one who seeks counsel to be im- 
paired through disuse and week dependence upon whose sight he thinks 
is keener than his own. 



f)4 THE REVIEW 

3. Our moral sense is corrected and quickened by prayer. It is not 
the office of the Holy Spirit to point out to us the right path, but, in 
answer to prayer, so to strengthen our moral vision that we shall find 
the path ourselves. 

4. The deliverances of our own consciences will be verified and cor- 
rected by our knowledge of the teachings of the New Testament bearing: 
upon these social questions. Such teachings, however, will not be in the 
form of vestpocket rules, but of great moral principles which we shall have 
to apply for ourselves. The Bible is the crystallization in literature of the 
best moral and religious consciousness of humanity, extending through 
vast periods of history, and controlled, as we believe, by the Holy Spirit. 
It is, therefore, vitally authoritive, just as in art an individual does not 
set himself up against the common consciousness of mankind. The man 
whose central purpose it is to obey his own conscience enlightened by 
the teachings of Christ made clear to him through the Holy Spirit given in 
answer to prayer, cannot go far wrong in any social question. 

5. Our decision should be absolute. One must not walk in the 
twilight of dubiety. No step should be taken in a path of doubtful pleas- 
ure until all misgivings about it has been cleared up. He that doubteih 
is condemned, St. Paul said, even about things that seemed to him perfect- 
ly right. A person of principle thinks things clear through, and has settled 
convictions before he acts. Be so pursuaded in your own mind before 
going to the theatre to see a high-toned drama that you will not be scared 
by any bogey in your path. Do it without concealment or shame. Be able 
to justify yourself to God and your fellow Christians. Otherwise the 
enjoyment of the play is marred by an aching conscience. Your religion 
spoils your pleasure and your pleasure your religion. 

6. Unflinching refusal to indulge in pleasures that are wrong in them- 
selves is, of course, the Christian's duty. One need not say much. Silent 
refusal is eloquent. Gambling is wrong in itself. The element of chance 
is not what makes it wrong, otherwise one ought not to play backgammon. 
There is chance in football. The ball may chance to hit a stone and 
bound just out of the player's reach. Card-playing is not what makes 
gambling wrong. Cards are not wrong in themselves. Of course, the asso- 
ciations of gambling are bad, but they are not what makes gambling wrong. 
Gambling it stealing. The winner at the gambling table, has money in his 
pocket that belongs to others. It is not his own. He has neither earned 
it nor has it been given to him. If I make a contract with another gentle- 
man according to the terms of which a valuable consideration passes from 
him to me or from me to him without a fair equivalent, I do what is in its 
very nature fraudulent. It makes no difference whether I gain or lose. 
The fraud is in the contract. The other's consenting to be robbed does 
not make my act any less robbery. The Christian's duty is surely clear 
as regards pleasures that are wrong in themselves. 

Many social pleasures are not wrong in themselves. Meat-ax con- 
demnation of them is singularly unjust and ineffective. Whether they are 
right or wrong depends upon other considerations than their own inherent 
quality. Many a thing that is not wrong per se is made wrong by what 
goes before or comes after it or is associated with it. Nothing in life 
comes to us per se. Everything is always connected with something else, 
like a live wire which is perfectly innocent per se, but happens to be con- 
nected with a dynamo. In regard to pleasures that have no inherent mor.-ij 
quality, other principles come into view\ 

7. Excessive indulgence in even the most innocent pleasure is wrong. 



RELIGIOUS TO 

Pleasure is the fringe of life, not the garment itself, the sauce that seasons 
the food, not the food. 

8. A pleasure right in itself becomes wrong if it steeps my mind in 
an atmosphere of evil association, as a violin is sensitive to sea air and 
is detoned. Our Lord teaches us to pray, Lead us not into temptation. 

9. To the Christian, things not wrong in themselves become wrong if 
they harm the spiritual life of others. Self-renunciation out of regard for 
the weak is a principle which St. Paul urges with varied iteration. Even 
in matters which seem perfectly right to ourselves, our duty often consists 
in a gentle and self-denying conformity to the beliefs, feelings and even 
prejudices of our weaker brethren so as to make it easier for them to 
abstain from what they think is wrong. This is something unknown among 
worldlings. It is distinctive of Christianity. It requires a Christian to 
give up with a smile the most congenial recreation if by so doing he may 
save those from engaging in it to whom it would be a sin, and who would 
be influenced by his example to commit that sin. This principle may easily 
be overworked by an enthusiastic Christian, the weaker brother being put 
upon a kind of throne from whence he dominates his fellow' Christians. 
One must learn to make nice, prayerful distinctions, considering whether 
more harm may not be done by the narrower course. It may easily happen 
that we may show more strength of character in breaking with the tradi- 
tions of our childhood than in acquiescing in their enslavement. Each one 
of us is entitled to an ample and symmetrical development of the w r hole 
self, body, mind, social nature, spirit, all, of course, with an altruistic 
end. We are not doing our best if we give to the service of man a starved 
or half-developed nature. It is rather in regard to those pleasures that 
have little to do with our higher development that we are to coddle our 
weaker brother, as for instance, wine-drinking, while other recreations 
might form an important factor in our education for the service of our fel- 
lows. In some things pleasure predominates, in others profit. All this has 
to be considered, if it is a question of the pleasure by itself, that one might 
readily give up for a weaker brother, but it is another thing to give up 
mental and moral profit which contributes to our power to help the weak. 

Such principles as these give to the Christian life a serious and heroic 
character. Some natures may be led by them into solitary, abstemious, and 
even thorny paths; but losing pleasure, we sometimes gain peace. Christ 
gives infinitely more than he takes away. We do not so much mind the 
paling of the street lamps- if it is caused by the rising sun. 



WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF A COLLEGE COURSE ON THE MAN 
INTENDING TO ENTER THE MINISTRY.' 



In a normal instance, the effect of the course upon the man is: 

i. To reveal to him his limitations both of powers and of acquisitions. 

2. To give him due humility in view of such limitations. 

3. To impart that genuine docility without which these limitations will 
disqualify him forever for the work of_the ministry. 

4. To discipline his untrained powers, so that he can thereafter him- 
self wisely and effectively employ them. 

5. To create new and never flagging desires for more of personal in- 
sight and personal efficiency. 



5G THE REVIEW 

6. To acquaint him with right methods of investigation and to accus- 
tom his mind to their use. 

7. To give him for a scries of years among chosen spirits of high 
quality that personal contact with equals needed to relieve him of his 
odious self-conceit and to implant in its place a proper esteem for his 
associates. 

8. To give him for four plastic years that personal contact with 
recognized superiors which will elevate and clarify his ideals of personal 
character and fit him for recognized leadership. 

9. To give him a correct conception of the various sciences on which 
the welfare of society depends, and of their relation to religion. 

10. To give him a correct conception of the various arts on which 
the welfare of society depends, and of their relation to religion. 

n. To acquaint him with the educational world, with educational 
methods, and with the vast responsibilities of the ministry and Church of 
Christ in the instruction of mankind. 

12. To acquire the intimate friendship of not a few of the men with 
whom in his future lifework he is to be associated, and from whom life- 
long as a consequence he will receive help and inspiration. 

13. To qualify him to pursue his later studies with the least possible 
loss of time and labor. 

14. To entitle him at once, and in advance of all other evidence to the 
confidence and esteem of the best people in any community to which in 
later life he may be sent. 

15. To give him a home feeling among the educated in any land under 
all circumstances. 

16. To augment manifold his ability to interest and instruct persons 
greatly differing in age, taste and calling. 

17. To open his eyes to the significance of human history and to the 
part w'hich human sin has played therein. 

18. To create a desire to learn what he can of the religions of the 
world and of the true religion. 

19. To bring him to his knees in fervent gratitude for birth in a Chris- 
tian land and for a place in a Christian college. 

20. To deepen his sense of God's call to him to go and at any cost 
evangelize the nations. — President IP. P. Warren, in Northwestern Chris- 
tian Advocate. 






WOMEN 



57 




MIRANDY HEARS ABOUT CREEDS. 



"Br'er Jenkins was at my house last night," observed Mirandy, "an' 
he was expostulatin' 'bout dat new sect of religioners out in de West, 
whar de man say he is Adam, an' dc woman say she is Eve, an' dey is 
tryin' to start a sort of second-hand Eden whar dey 'lows dere won't be 
no sin, an' ev'body will go about widout no clothes on onless dey maybe 
mought be sort of dressy, an' wear a fig leaf or so. 

' 'Humph,' 'spons I, 'I don't think much of dat as a faith, leastways 
for women. Dere wouldn't be no Eden ef hit didn't have a few bonnits, 
an' longery shirt waists in hit, for no female lady dat I is acquainted with. 
Besides even a angel looks better wid a nice rloatin' robe on, an' dere ain't 
nothin' in de spectacle of a bony, scrawny woman not a fat, floppy one to 
elewate de thoughts towards speritual things. No. Br'er Jenkins,' says I, 
'clothes is lak de mantle of charity — dey covers a multitude of sins, an' 
you wont never ketch me runnin' off after any newfangled religion dat 
<ioe^ away wid yo' Sunday go-to-meetin' frock an' hat.' 

' 'Bless Gord for de faithful !' spons Br'er Jenkins, 'but dese folks 
aim peeled down to de skin yit, ow r in' to not yit findin' enough folks 
dat is got a strangle hold on sin, 'an' furdermore de climate been ser vig- 
orous in dem parts in de winter. But I hears dey is git a mighty likely 
little valley whar dey is gwine back to the simple life of our first pa an' 
ma befo' dey got mixed-up wid dat serpent business.' 

"Yassum, dat's so. An' Br'er Jenkins' remarks remind me of Br'er 
Isham. Br'er Isham was a moughty peart man, what was a master brick- 
layer, an' when he move into our neighborhood dere was a mighty wrastlin' 
around to see what ch'ch he would jine, because we all felt dat he would 
be a po'ful ornament to de congregation, bein' as how he was a personable 
man. wid a plug hat an' a bass voice dat shook de rafters when he open 
his mouf to sing. 

"So all de sisters, dey go mighty perlitc to call on Br'er Ishan. an 
invite him to deir chu'eh, an' he thank 'em, an' say he'll be pleased to drop 
around, but he don't say which faith is his faith, an' befo' we knowed hit 
de Methodist, an' de Baptist, an' de Presbyterian, an' de Unitarian, an' de 
Piscumpalums sistern was all a chimin' him, an' having eyes on his pocket- 
oook. 

"At last I went to h*jfi, an' i says : 

'"Br'er J sham/ says I, 'widout wishin' to pry into yo' private affairs, 
I makes bold to ax you what is de entitlement of de chu'eh dat you belongs 
to, for Sis Sany Ann says you is a Methodist an' is a countin' on you to 
contribute to deir strawberry supper, an' Sis Lucindy says you shorly will 



58 THE REVIBW 

help out wid de missionary fund for de Presbyterians, you bein' one an r 

strong in de faith, whilst Sis Malviry is looking for you to open de raffle 

at de Unitarian bazaar, an' Sis Tempy is got you down for a cake for de 
Baptist supper, an' de Piscumpalum guild is waitin' for you wid foteen 
pairs of slippers dat dey is expectin' to sell to a gemman who is been 
brought up in de only religion dat is really styly. Darefore,' says I, 'hit 
will be money in yo' pocket to come out, an' say whar you belongs. ' 

" 'Sis Mirandy,, spons Br'er Isham, 'dat is de true word you is givin' 
me. an' I thanks you for hit.' 

"Wid dat Br'er Isham heave a sigh an' den he went on. 'To tell you 
de truf, Sis Mirandy/ he 'spons, 'I hardly knows whar I stands, for I'se 
a religious man, Sis Mirandy. An' dere's somethin' in hit, when de organ 
sampled mos' all of de chu'ches, an' all of 'em had deir good pints an' 
deir bad pints. 

" 'I was raised in de Catholic chu'ch, Sis Mirandy, an' hit suttinly is a 
grand ole chu'ch. An' deres somethin' in hit when de organ rolls, an de 
candles shine on de altar, an' d« priest sings de Mass dat makes a lump 
come in yo' throat, an' you fsel lak you can almost stretch out yo' hand 
s&d tetch de robes of de holy ones ; but, Sis Mirandy de 
Catholic chu'ch is too sudden. Hit's too contemporaneous, so to speak. 
Hit don't put off de judgment day to de nex' world. Hit brings hit right 
along now, and whilst I didn't worry none 'bout running' up an account 
wid the Recording Angel, hit shorly did go against de grain to have to 
pay for rav sins on de nail, des as I went along. Mo'over, I'se a hearty 
man wid a good appetite, an' dere was too many fast days to suit me, sa 
I sorter moved on. 

' 'Den I jined de Methodist chu'ch. Sis Mirandy, an' ef I dose say hit 
myself. I am mightv gifted as a shouter. Dat's a fine church, too. Si$ 
Mirandy, but wid hit's 'sperience meetin's whar ev'body gits up an' tells 
about deir sins, hit ain't no place for a nigger whut is a jedge of fat 
pullets, an' lives close to a place whar de chickens roost low. De Metho- 
dist chu'ch is a mighty good chu'ch for dem whut ain't been led into tempta- 
tion, or is slick tongued. but hit didn't suit me. so I dis sorter drew out 
an' iined de Presbyterians. 

" 'Dat shorly is a grand faith, Sis Mirandy, an' I took to predestination 
an' foreord ination like a duck to water, for hit suttinly is comfortin' ra 
know dat what is to be is gwine to be', wedder hit is or not, an' da^ 
vou ain't really responsible for doin' de things dat hit was settled you was 
bound to do millions of years befo' you was bawn. Somehow, dough, i 
got col' feet in de Presbyterian chu'ch a wonderin' ef, maybe, I'd drawee 
de wrong ticket an' got de double cross in life : an' so, as nobody could tell 
me fur certain which wav I was headed I hiked out for a chu'ch where de 
signboards was a little nlainer. 

" 'Den I jined de Piscumpalums, but dat is a book chu'ch, an' I 
didn't know how to read, an' hit kept me so mixed up dat I was always 
afeard I'd git de wrong blessin', for lak as not when I'd want to 'zort de 
Lawd to send me <l ram to uring up de potatoes, de only prar dat I could 
remember x?%j for aem wnut go down to de sea in ships, which didn't 
seem to have no bearin' on de case. So I passed up de Piscumpalums, 
dough I shorly would lake to be saved in as good company as dey is. Dey 
suttinly would do you proud when Gabriel blows his horn. 

" 'De next chu'ch I tackled was de Unitarians. Dat's a big, fine, broad 
eftu'eh, Sis Mirandy, but hit is cut too big for me. I lak to feel my 
religion fit a little closer, an' bind a little at the seams, not enough to really 
hamper me. you know, but just so I'll know I'se got hit on, so me an' da* 



WOMEN 59» 

chu'ch didn't stick togedder ve'y long, an' den I mover over to do Bap- 
tists. 

" 'Dat's de chu'ch for me, Sis Mirandy ! Dat's hit ! Hit's dip an' duck 
an' dere you are. Hit's de church wid de double action plan for salvation 
for when you blackslides all you got to do is to come again. And hit sets 
more store on doctrine dan hit does on works, which is mighty com- • 
fortin' to a man lake me whut drops by de wayside occasionally, yit is 
strong in de faith. 

:i 'Dat's whar I stands, Sis Mirandy. I'se a deep water Baptist, but I 
ain't sayin' nothin' against all de odder chu'ches. Dey's all good, but 
you has to pick out yo' religion lak you does you' coat — what'll suit one- 
won't suit anodder, an' ev'ybody to deir taste/ 

" 'Dat's so,' 'sponds I, 'an' hit's a good thing we don't hold to de 
same faith, for ef we did dere wouldn't be nOthin' to fight over.' 

' 'Amen,' says Br'er Isham, 'an' hit's a better thing dere's so many 
different chu'ches — dey perlices each odder.' " 

Dorothy Dix, in the Evening Bulletin. 



A FAMILY OF TEMPERANCE WORKERS. 



Probably there are no members of the British peerage more out and out 
in their opposition to the social evils that threaten the home life of the 
British people to-day than the Earl and Countess of Carlisle and their 
children. The chief object of their attack is the liquo traffic which they 
claim lies at the root of most of the dangers that menace the home, causing 
the physical deterioration of the race and the demoralization of the home; 
and blasting the lives of the young children who are the future citizens 
of the British Empire. When it is apprehended that seven and a half mil- 
lion people have fallen victims to the liquor traffic in England, and that 
more people have been killed by it during the last thirty years than in all 
the wars in the nineteenth century the world over, the importance of the 
problem is understood. 

It is the acute seriousness of the menace of the drink evil that has 
brought the Earl and Countess of Carlisle and those with whom they are 
closely related to the front in the radical movement to suppress the traffic. 
The importance of their influence may be gaged by their high social stand- 
ing in the hereditary nobility of Great Britain, and by their prominence in 
the larger and greater nobility of those who are enlisted in endeavors to 
make the world a better place for all humankind. 

The Earl of Carlisle is a British peer of a line over two centuries old. 
He is the ninth Ear] of Carlisle, the earldom having been created in 1661. 
His other titles are Viscount Howard of Morpeth and Baron Darce of 
Gillesland. lie was born in 1843 and he was just twenty-one years of age 
when he married the brilliant and beautiful lion. Rosalind Frances Stan- 
ley. 

It is said that there is no royal residence eqhal in extent and beahty 
to Castle Howard, the family scat of the Howards. Howard is the family 
name of the Earl of Carlisle, who, divested of his titles, is simply Mr. 
.George James Howard, J. P. Castle Howard is located at York and is a 
magnificent place with a dome two hundred feet in the air. Much interest 
attaches to the castle because it is here that the Earl and Countess of 
Carlisle gave to the world a unique and telling demonstration of their genu- 



60 THE REVIEW 

inc conversion to total abstinence. Convinced that the drinking of liquors 
is only a source of evil and never of good, and that the complete destruc- 
tion of alcoholic drinks is essential to human happiness and progress, they 
proceeded to show their faith by their works. Castle Howard possest 
wine-cellars famous, far and wide, for their collection of rare old liquors. 
The Howards opened these rusty old vaults, removed all the vats, kegs, 
■and bottles, and destroyed their contents. A storm of indignation arose 
from those who could not understand the conscientious and high-minded 
purpose of Lord and Lady Carlisle. Not content with a partial movement, 
they made their severance with the liquor traffic complete by closing all the 
public houses and retail liquor stores on the great estates belonging to the 
family. 

Naworth Castle, the family seat at Carlisle, is celebrated as one of 
the old border castles, built as a stronghold for defense during troublesome 
times between Scotland and England, and preserved as a type of the expen- 
sive baronial seats which marked the splendor of early British nobles. The 
castle is full of reminders of Sir William Howard, the "Belted Will" of 
Scott's "Lay of the Last Minstrel," his library being here and his bedroom 
just as they were in ancient times. Connected with the estate is Lanercost 
Priory, founded in the twelfth century, where King Edward made his tem- 
porary residence in 1280, and where two memorial tablets have been placed 
to sons of Lord and Lady Carlisle, one of whom is buried here and the 
other in the African desert. 

No liquor saloons are to be found on the ground of Naworth Castle. 
And neither here nor in Castle Howard nor in the handsome London resi- 
dence at No. 1 Palace Green is liquor ever served to guests, no matter how 
high their station. What this attitude toward social drinking-customs on 
the part of so influential a family involves is not difficult to estimate. It 
is certain to be of far-reaching effect in strengthening the position of the 
radical element working for social uplift through temperance reform. 

With the Countess of Aberdeen and Lady Henry Somerset, the Coun- 
tess of Carlisle ranks as one of the most business-like women, the most 
active in politics, and the most eloquent in platform speaking of Great 
Britain. She personally superintends all her enterprises. Like Queen Vic- 
toria, she goes about in the most unpretentious fashion and is personally 
acquainted with every man, woman and child on her estates. When her 
daughter, Lady Mary Howard, chose to marry Prof. Gilbert Murray of 
Glasgow University, the good countess had great happiness, because she 
had no desire that her children should marry only those of wealth and rank. 
Of her eleven children, six are living. The four daughters (one of whom 
is married to. Hon. Charles Roberts, M. P.) and two of whom are single 
are all enthusiastic temperance workers. The heir to the earldom is Vis- 
count Morpeth. The second son, Hon. Geoffrey Howard, is a member of 
Parliament, and does active service for better liquor legislation. The laws 
'which the countess is now seeking are for the prohibition of the sale of 
liquors to minors, and for the elimination of the barmaid system. Lady 
Dorothy Howard represented her mother in the World's Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union convention in Boston, when the Countess of Car- 
lisle was chosen world's president. 

The only law as yet procured to mitigate the practice of sending chil- 
dren for liquor has been a provision that the liquor must be carried in 
covered receptacles, thus decreasing the temptation. Headed by Lady Car- 
lisle and her influential family, the cause of temperance will receive a great 
and permanent impetus, not only in Great Britain but around the world. — 
Nav Idea Woman's Magazine. 



WOMEN 6 1 

WHO ARE THE "IDEALISTS?" 



Abraham Lincoln in his great debate with Stephen A. Douglas forced 
his opponent over and over again to face the question, "Did the writers 
of the Declaration of Independence mean 'all men,' or did they mean only 
white men?" The "Little Giant" unhesitatingly answered, "Only white 
men !" This answer returned him to the United States Senate, but two 
years later made his opponent President of the United States. Notwith- 
standing the grim arbitratment of the sword, the triumphant Emancipa- 
tion Proclamation which challenged the admiration of the civilized world, 
notwithstanding the splendid rise of the colored people since that time,. 
the prompt way in which thousands of slaves* and hundreds of thousands 
of their children sprang into self-supporting competency, out of a dense, 
inherited illiteracy into intelligent readers, high school and college gradu- 
ates, accumulators of dollars and directors of industries, there is at the 
present time a painful revival of the Stephen A. Douglas philosophy, of 
compromise with prejudices and of temporizing with the prophetic utter- 
ances of the fathers and the saviors of the republic, — Washington, Jeffer- 
son, Lincoln, and their associates. There is the same reproach of "Idealist" 
thrown at those who really believe that "all men have certain inalienable 
rights, among which are life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness.*' "Idealism''' 
as a term of reproach must mean the persistent ignoring of facts, the re- 
fusal to take note of things as they are. Thus interpreted, the most per- 
verse "idealists" in American life to-day are those who persist in prating 
of the dangers of Xegro domination on the one hand, and the native in- 
capacity and essential inferiority of the colored race on the other hand, — ■ 
those who talk of "segregating of races," "setting them apart," "coloni- 
zation," etc., etc. 

All this talk Hies in the face of the arithmetic. It is simply a physical 
impossibility to drown, shoot, or in any other way kill off 11,000,000 or 
more men and women, and this is the only way to stop the procreative 
stream. It is equally a physical impossibility to transfer as many people 
to any corner of the globe under legislation, however generous, aided by a 
spirit, however willing, on the part of both races. If it be said that segre- 
gation is aimed only for the degraded and the ignorant, it is an equal 
physical impossibility to keep the illiterate in their ignorance, the degraded 
in their degradation, or the acceptable ones from slipping downwards as 
others climb upwards. If it is a matter of blood, race peculiarities and 
grim heredity, it is a mad idealism that ignores the fact that the blood in 
the veins of from four to six million of alleged "colored" people is over- 
whelmingly Caucasian in its elements. They are the direct product of 
boasted Anglo-Saxon blood and brain, and the African stream is being 
perpetually adulterated by infusions of the "dominant white man," the 
"conquering Saxon;" and the production of mulattoes goes steadily on, and 
according to some good authorities in the South, is on the increase. And 
this not on account of the degradation of the colored woman, but the 
aggressiveness of the degenerate white man. 

It is equally impossible to stop colored children from learning their 
letters, and when this is once accomplished there is no way of building 
a barrier high enough to keep a reading child, black or white, from occas- 
ionally climbing into his algebra, mastering his Greek, and winning col- 
lege degrees. 

What are these mad "Idealises" going to do with these obstinate 
"facts-" There is nothing to do. spite ^\ their ravings, but t<> accept the 



62 THE REVIEW 

situation, recognize the existence of the colored race, give it a chance, and 
let the white man take his chances. The only solution is the solution of 
common sense, fair play, and submission to the inevitable workings of the 
divine law of justice. If the Anglo-Saxon is to dominate the world and 
the white race is to become universal, he must absorb and not annihilate 
his rivals. His triumph must come through elevating and not through 
destroying those whom he pronounces "inferior." 

The appeal to "facts" is a timely one. The "facts" were on the side 
of Lincoln and not of Douglas in 1858.; they are on the side of Booker T. 
Washington and Professor DuBois to-day and not on the side of Tillman 
or his more dainty sentimentalists among the "ladies and gentlemen" of 
Northern clubs who were so menaced with hysteria oyer the prospects of 
"social equality" and "colored invasion." The grossest violation of "fact" 
and the most perverse methods of reason are those which persist in study- 
ing one race, sect or party at its lowest and the opposing race, sect or party 
at its highest, and then draw conclusions based upon such vicious data. — 
Unity. 



education (j:; 




With the July number, 1905, according to announcement, we began 
what may properly be called our Correspondence Course in the studies 
laid down in the A. M. E. Discipline for ministers entering or seeking 
to enter the itinerant service of the Church. It is the purpose to make 
this course of real value to all who wish to compass the work in an 
earnest, profitable way. It will be impossible, with the small assistance 
wc are able to command in clerical work, to undertake to answer letters 
hy personal correspondence, for that would require more time than we 
can give ; but those pursuing the course may feel free to write con- 
cerning any point upon which they feel doubt or desire information ; 
and the answer will appear in the succeeding issue of The Review. 
This rule will not be varied from under any circumstances. 

It is thought best to put the matter in the form of question and 
answer, in order to give as much definiteuess and point to the work 
as possible. The Student will find the questions on any particular study 
given in one number of The Review and the proper answers in the 
next number. In this way he will have three months to prepare him- 
self upon the questions by research, and can test the correctness of his 
knowledge by the answers when they appear. We advise that every 
student put his own answer in writing in a blank book kept for that 
purpose ; in that way alone he can make progress in accurate scholar- 
ship. 

Remember, above all else, that in this plan you have a school brought 
to your very door, and no expense except the $1.00 subscription you p»v 
for The Revlew. This is a sincere effort to help the man who cannot go 
to school away from home. 

THE FIRST BOOK EMBRY'S DIGEST. 

Binney's Compend used to be the standard work used by the A. M. 
E. Church as a digert on theology, but with the publication of Embry's 
Digest in 1890, the Compend was superseded by it, or at least made only 
an alternative. Dr. Embry himself, however, acknowledges the work of 
Binney, and every student of the Digest ought to read Binney also. 

On page 407 of the A. M. E. Discipline for 1005 will be found tin. 
studies for admission to the traveling connection. The books ther^ 



64 THE REVIEW 

designated are the Gospels, the Discipline, Embry's Digest of TheoI< 
Tanner's Outlines of A. M. E. Church History, Wesley's Plain Account 
of Christian Perfection. 

We begin with the Digest. It will be noted that the Discipline refers 
to Methodist Polity (Turner)., page 245, for questions to be propounded. 
Reference to that work shows that the questions of theology are based on 
Binney's Compend and not Embry's Digest. This is because the Dige^r 
had not been written at that time, and Binney was the authorized book. 
Though we are to study the Digest instead of Binney, these questions will 
furnish excellent tests of the student's real knowledge of the subject, in- 
dependently of the particular author; for it must never be forgotten that 
it is the facts, rather than the author's statement of them, that you are after. 



THE DISCIPLINARY COURSE OE STUDY. 

(To be continued.) 

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS IN THE AERIE (07) -'REVIEW:' 

These answers refer to correspondingly numbered questions in the* 
October number of Tin-; Review, to which reference should be made. 

The Editor 

117. Sin is a great mystery, 

118. "Repentance nor grief, nor any possible reformation will or can re- 

store the relation of harmony between the offender and his God." 
P. 138. 

119. The Mediator must be Divine. lie must also be human. Gal. 

iv: 4, 5. 

120. The first is expiatory; that is, that Christ died as a sacrifice and 

substitute for sinful man; the second is exemplary; that is, that 
Christ's death was intended to exemplify God's great love and 
thus soften and turn to righteousness man's sinful and rebellions 
heart. Pp. 139. 140. 

121. The author believes it w«s expiatory. 

122. See Isa. 53: 4 and the Lord's words, "This is my body which is given. 

for you," etc. 
123.. (a) Holiness cannot regard sin with complacency; 

(b) Justice cannot commute or pardon sin; 

(c) With relation to these two the sinner is lost; 

(d) Lore in the form of Mercy intervenes and pleads; 

(e) Wisdom provides a way for reconciliation and recovery; 

(f) In this provision mac 1 ", appears the fullness of the Godhead-- 
tnrce m one. 

1^4. No; the legal aspect cannot; the gracious aspect must be brought ir 
—that is. both law and grace. 



EDUCATION 65 

i25, (a) The Levitical law provided a sin and a Tjurnt offering; ChrisV 
was both. 

(b) The Levitical law' required a regular Priest; Christ was such- 
after the order of Melchisidec; 

(c) The Levitical law made an ottering once a year; Christ was; 
offered once for all. He was both Priest and victim. P^. 
j 49, 150. 

126. (a) The old school Calvinistic view; 

(b) The modern Calvinistic view ; 

(c) The Universalist view; 

(d) The Armenian doctrine. 

127. They regard the atonement as limited to the elect — a selected few. 

Pp. 152, 153. 

128. They hold that legal obstacles are removed so that all men may b? 

saved, if God wills it, but they are not sure of His purpose. 

I2Q. Armenians (Methodists) believe that Christ died for all and thf 
sole condition of salvation is faith; this faith comes through wha/ 
is called the new birth. John 3: 16, and I John, 2: 2. Read al/ 
of pp. 154-163. 



13' 

H2 
133 
134 
135 
1 36 

• ?>7 
138 
130 
140 

141 

142 

)43 
144 



EMBRY'S DIGEST OF THEOLOGY. 

(Questions to be answered in October.) 

Who was the first influential teacher of Universalism ? When di# 

he : live? 
State the substance of this doctrine. 
What is religion? What Latin word is it from? 
What is the use of Christian doctrine? 
What is repentanc'- 9 

What are some of the Hnds of repentance recognized by theologians.? 
What kind of repentav^e i.s required by God ? 

What is saving faith? Fro*?3 what Greek word doe- the term come? 
What is the relation of faith to love? 
How are children and in.: cole-; saved? 
What is justification.' 
What is meant by pedo or paiJo baptism? 

Why are Methodists called pedo-baptists? 
Make the strongest argument you can in favor of infant baptism*. 
What is regeneration? 
What is sanctification ? 



66 THB REVIEW 

145. What is the Roman Catholic belief on this? 

146. State briefly Mr. Wesley's views. 

N. B, — With the next number (October) of The Review, we shaV 
finish Embry's Digest. The closing subject will be Eschatology, as found 
in Part V of the book. 

The October number of The Review will signalize the completion 
of the Digest by offering a prize of $5.00 for the best essay on soma sutr 
ject covered in the questions asked in this department, the subject anV 
conditions to be announced in the October Review. 

"Tanner's Outlines of A. M. E. Church History" will be our nex/ 
book in course. - Editor. 



MISCELLANEOUS 67 




JEWS LEAVING PALESTINE. 



Many good people have looked for the day when the Jew would be in 
possession of the land of his fathers. A correspondent of a German- Jewish 
paper writing from there says that many of the later colonists are anxious 
to get away. It now appears that Palestine itself is nothing more than a 
temporary station for the Jewish wanderers who are drawn away, as if by 
some irresistible power, to America, Africa and even Australia. The main 
reason why Jewish colonization has not taken strong root in Palestine is 
the lack of markets and factories. Without markets and factories, the 
colonies cannot develop and gain a solid footing. And then, it must also 
J>e borne in mind that the colonists here are entirely dependent upon what 
they call "miracles," the whim of the weather. One dry year is sufficient 
to throw the colonists into a state of destitution. They run into debt, and 
their condition at once becomes critical. Besides, they are burdened with 
heavy taxes. And the colonists complain that the Arabs frequently steal 
the crops from the fields, and the cattle from the barns. — Ex. 



THE NEW KIND OF INDIAN. 



The new Constitution, providing for a State of Oklahoma, has been 
completed, and if approved by the President, will likely be yoted on this 
fall. The convention had 112 delegates, 100 of them Democrats and 12 
Republicans. The Indian Territory had 55, Oklahoma 55, and the Osage 
nation 2. It was supposed, because of special intellectual attainments, that 
Oklahoma could dominate the convention as against the representatives of 
the ignorant Indians. The Indians, fearing this danger, sent their very 
best men. Many of them had been educated in Carlisle, Harvard and Cor- 
nell. Not only were they able to cope with the best, but they soon showed 
ihat they were as sound morally as they were able intellectually. These 
men were trained in mission schools before they went to college, and the 
missionary stamp was on them first and will remain longest. In Oklahoma 
the saloon element in part controlled and sent professional politicians, men 
of low moral standards and of mediocre ability. The Indians showed their 
intelligence and ability by blocking measures that would likely injure their 
people. Efforts were made to abolish trusts and monopolies and to con- 
trol railways and other public carriers. The Indian Territory is to be 



(')& THE REVIEW 

"dry*' for twenty-one years. Statewide prohibition will be submitted 
separately, with a probability that it will carry. Separate schools must be 
provided for Negro children. "In the creation of Senatorial and legisla- 
tive districts the State was gerrymandered beyond hope of Republican 
success." The direct primary was not made mandatory ; free railway pass- 
es are not allowed; in the preamble, the guidance of 'Almighty God" is 
invoked. — Ex. 



DIMINISHING LYNCHINGS. 



In 1906 there were J2 lynchings in the United States. 

It is a disgraceful number — a black national sin. The coward's owr, 
offense. Tenfold more helpless men were done to death in 1906 by brum 
mobs in the "land of the free and the home of the brave" than in all tht 
rest of the civilized world — except Russia. 

But bad as this crime is. at least it diminishes. In iqo6 there were 72 
lynchings. In the five years ending with 1905 the lynchings averaged 112 
In the five years, 1891-1895, the lynchings averaged 187. In rive-year 
periods for fifteen years they steadily fell. 

The average now is about half what it was fifteen years ago. The 
lynchings in 1906 were less than half the average for the first ten year:- 
of which we have record and less than a third the highest figure — 1892, 
with 235 lynchings. 

When any crime steadily diminishes for half a generation one can 
predict its disappearance. The diminution will not be steady. There 
were 12 more lynchings in 1906 than in 1905. So there were 43 more in 
[892 than in 1891. 

But year by year, in the main and on the average, the number of 
lynchings falls — one-half in fifteen years. In another generation the num- 
ber will be so few T that suppression will be near. 

The South itself is waking up. The last Texas Democratic conven- 
tion passed a resolution aimed at lynching. All the papers in the South- 
west bitterly deplored the 26 murders which fell on Christmas Day along 
the Gulf coast from Mobile to Galveston. Governor Vardaman, with all 
his faults, has acted with courage and energy in suppressing the mob 
assaults on Negroes in Mississippi, set a price on the heads of white 
murderers and restored security. The Citizens' Committee on the Atlanta 
not has made a perfectly fair report,* condemning disorder and vindicating 
the Negroes slain as law-abiding men. 

Dark as has been much in the race outlook in 1906, the world moves, 
and it turns toward the sun of righteousness, justice and equal light for 
ail. — l y ress. 



A NOTABLE CONFERENCE. 



Last week there met in Philadelphia a gathering of gentlemen and 
ladies as important in purpose and as unique in personnel as it was small 
in numbers. About thirty invitations were sent out to persons skilled in 
social investigations and statistical interpretation, to meet at the Eighth 
Ward Social Settlement House. 22 Locust street, over which Mr. R. R. 



MISCELLANEOUS &) 

Wright, Jr., is the directing influence, requesting that an evening might 
be given to a candid and informal discussion of the main American problem, 
under the subject, "The Point of View of the Negro Problem." 

There is nothing remarkable in the meeting of a body of intelligent 
citizens to talk over such a subject, I grant; but the participants and the 
manner of discussion were entirely unusual and, I may say, remarkably 
helpful. 

First of all, the parties present were assured that there would be no 
annoying publicity given to the views of any speaker ; so that the utmost 
freedom might be exercised in "speaking out one's heart." All were 
warned to take blows as well as encouraged to give them; and indeed, the 
session opened with a passage at arms, in which, however, the only blood 
in evidence was in the ruddy cheeks of an eminent Caucasian student of 
national life as he repelled the Damascene thrusts of an Afro-American 
theologian who sought to solve instanter the whole matter by the touch- 
stone of the Bible. For a while the two doughty knights whacked and 
thwacked each other's helmets and corslets with sociological principles versus 
Pauline saying, till the watchful and tactful Mr. Wright led them gently 
from the lists to make way for new entries. 

Now, it is evident from the promise of immunity from reporters made 
to those who spoke, that I cannot, in this sketch, fit to each proper person 
the opinion he advanced; but I can, without violation of pledge or implica- 
tion, tell in a general way what views were advanced, and I can with 
propriety tell some of the people who made up this meeting, without be- 
traying to editor or reader the particular Jove from which each minervan 
thought sprang; nor will it be possible for the astute editor to guess the 
thought belonging to the man by counting equal numbers of each, since 
there were more persons present than views presented. 

The thing that struck me on studying the gathering was, (i) that it 
was composed of both races in their most thoughtful representatives; (2), 
that both sections of the nation— the North and the South — were present; 
(3) that both sexes were there; and (4) that everybody knew that there was 
to be no reservation of thought or opinion in the presence of a delicate 
phrase of the. general question, such an amalgamation is considered to be. 
of the University of Pennsylvania, where he holds the chair of Economic 

First, I noted the presence of Prof. Carl Kelsey, Professor of Sociology 
in the University of Pennsylvania, an author and investigator of vigor and 
originality. He stands in the estimation of college men, very near in 
authority to Prof. Samuel McCtine Lindsay, late Commissioner of Educa- 
tion for Porto Rico, and Professor of Sociology in the University of Penn- 
sylvania. -Mr. Kelsey has written a work, "The Negro Farmer," after a 
visit to the Southern field, that is in excellent spirit and evinces scientific 
vision; besides this, he is at the head of the Social Workers' Club; is a 
director of the School of Philanthropy (New York and Philadelphia) and 



70 THE REVIEW 

to make the cathocility complete, is from the State of Iowa. Following 
him were the persons below mentioned: 

Prof. Surface, Professor of Political Economy in a Virginia University, 
an Investigator for the Carnegie Institution, and just now resident in 
Philadelphia. Prof. J. Russell Smith, of the Wharton School of Finance 
of the University of Pennsylvania, where he holds the chair of Economic 
Geography. Mr. Smith is a Virginian. 

Prof. George B. Mangold is Professor of Statistics in the University 
of Pennsylvania, and was a fellow student with Prof. R. R. Wright, Jr., 
field, that is in excellent spirit and evinces scientific vision; besides this, 
he is at the head of the Social Workers' Club; is a director of the School 
his host on this occasion, at the Chicago University. He is an Iowan. 

Mr. Jno. T. Emlen is an active social settlement worker in German- 
town, and is a descendant of one of the old Quaker families that came 
over with William Penn. It was his grandfather who gave the main hall 
at the Institute for Colored Youth, at Cheyney, Pa. 

Perhaps the most interesting figure in this Caucasian group is Mr. 
Alfred Hope Stone, a large plantation owner in the Yazoo Valley, Mississip- 
pi, some idea of the magnitude of whose farming operations can be gained 
w T hen I state that he employs ninety-four Negro families on his land. 
He also has farms in Arkansas, I am told. He is a most engaging per- 
sonality, with the small foot and haughty face, common opinion associates 
with his kind, I saw nothing Of the provincial narrowness that we expect 
from the native Southerner, especially when that Southerner is from 
Mississippi, and that Mississippian from the Yazoo. On the contrary, he 
was broad, cool, remarkably well-informed and capable of valuable deduc- 
tions. Perhaps I give a better idea of his thought place among such 
persons as were assembled, by stating that he is an investigator for the 
Carnegie Institute and a valuable contributor of sociological matter to some 
of our best magazines. 

Completing and adorning this group, were two ladies who held their 
seats, not by courtesy, but by right of high service in the cause of human- 
ity. 

Miss Cornelia Hancock, one of the first teachers to go South after the 
war for the purpose of teaching Negro children. She went to Mt. Pleas- 
ant, South Carolina, near Charleston, under the auspices of the Pennsyl- 
vania Abolition Society. The school she established still continues. 

Miss Frances R. Bartholomew, a sweet-faced Quakeress from Connecti- 
cut, who heads the Eighth Ward Social Settlement Work in Philadelphia, 
and is unconscious of color differences in estimating the value of men, 
except to deny the prevalent American heresy that "ail coons look alike." 

Miss Helen I. Thompson, also of Connecticut, in charge of work 
among the girls at the Eighth Ward Social Settlement. 

The next group, most of whom will be too well known to the readers 
of "The Age," to need any race or color designation, consisted of Bishops 



MISCELLANEOUS 71 

Benjamin T. Tanner, Levi J. Coppin, Editors H. T. Johnson, C. F. Perry, 
James Samuel Stemmons, H. T. Kealing, J. E. McGirt, Revs. B. F. Watson, 
R. W. Fickland, R. H. Armstrong, Hon. George H. White, Prof. R, R. 
Wright, Jr., and, sole representative of her sex in brown, the courageous,- 
fluent and uncompromising champion, Mrs. N. F. Mossell. 

Here we have all the elements and most of the points of view. 

The views emanating from the white group, as the discussion pro- 
ceeded, were that race prejudice was universal and necessary; that it was 
the incentive or provocation to a rivalry -that advanced civilization. 

The colored group replied that it could not be either a good thing or 
necessary, since it was contrary to religion, and was the mother of all 
that was evil in civilization from slavery to lynching; that it was not 
natural, because it only grew by teaching. 

The white group asserted that that social equality was not desirable 
and that the best colored people did not want it. 

The colored group rejoined that they wanted social freedom and cer- 
tainly did not stand for a social inequality that always put white at the 
top and black at the bottom; that such matters were not proper subjects 
for regulation anyway. 

The white group stood for race purity, was opposed to amalgamation 
and intermarriage. 

The colored group pointed to itself as a sufficient refutation of the 
white man's desire for race purity and claimed that the miscegenation law* 
of the South were the greatest .promoters of amalgamation by removing, 
from the aggressing party the proper penalty for his sin. 

The white group then took up the economic side of the question and' 
showed that the Negro laborer, both North and South, was industrially 
inefficient and unreliable; though admitting an emerging class which was- 
rising to economic independence. 

The colored group adduced the restrictions placed upon Negro op*- 
portunity in the North and fraudulent and brutal methods in the South 
as both the main cause and explanation of this condition. 

Mr. Wright then suggested that the remainder of the time be devoted 
to a statement of the points of agreement between the two groups as repre- 
sentatives of the two races. 

The summary of views upon this point was : 

i. That there is a growing element in the South standing for justice- 
to co-operation with and protection of all its citizenship, regardless of 
color. 

2. That this better element is not in political control of the South, 
as the spokesmanship of Messrs. Tillman, Vardaman, Dixon and Davis 
proves. 

3. That the Negro must not only have protection, but participancy 
in politics, as well as in business and society. 

4. That his full manhood must be admitted, according to American- 
standards, and steps taken to protect it. 



72 THE REVIEW 

5. That universal education, higher, professional and industrial, ac- 
cording to individual needs, must be accorded and encouraged for the 

Negro as well as the white man. 

The meeting closed with a mutual and increased respect on the par* 
of the groups each for the other ; and with the feeling that much had 
been learned from each side, with an infinite supply of ignorance still 
to be disposed of by some future renewal of the conference. — H. T. Keal- 
rNG, in the New York Age. , 



EDITORIAL 73 




Our readers will find it well to file away Mr. R. R. Wright's articles On 
the Philadelphia Negro for their reference value in the future. 



An industrial exposition is to be held in Dublin, Ireland, this summer, 
covering fifty-two acres, and lasting six months. It is estimated that 6,000,- 
000 people will visit it. 



The Brownsville investigation drags wearily and almost fruitlessly 
on. The general effect has been favorable to the soldiers, since even their 
officers who expressed belief in their guilt have now changed their opinion 
and believe them innocent. 



The closing of the colored State College at Dover, Delaware, was thf 
occasion of much social enjoyment and the opportunity for visitors to 
witness many evidences of solid educational advancement. President 
Jason supplements his own efficiency and vigilance by gathering around 
him a faculty of culture and competency. The venerable Chief Justice ot 
Delaware, Judge Lore, is President of the Trustee Board. 



It has been demonstrated by an experiment performed by Prof. Fisher, 
of Yale University, that the superior endurance of vegetable-eating people, 
like the Japanese, over flesh-eating people, like the Russians, has a scien- 
tific basis, and is not accidental, as some have claimed. 

He subjected nine men to a diet of their own choice, stipulating only 
that they should chew the food thoroughly and give attention to bringing- 



74 THE RRVIBW 

out the full taste. In a few days the amount of meat they ate began to 
diminish, nuts and cereals being substituted instead. 

At the end of the experiment the meat eaten was considerably less than 
half of the amount eaten at first, while their strength and endurance had 
increased to double and their digestion was perfect. 



The announcement is made at Harvard that to Alain Le Roy Locke, of 
Philadelphia, has been awarded $250, the first of the three Bowdoin prizes 
given annually to undergraduates for the three best literary essays. The 
interesting fact about this is that Mr. Locke is the young colored 
man who recently carried off the Rhodes Scholarship from Pennsylvania 
over a number of competitors. The Bowdoin prize is the most important 
bestowed at Harvard. This, we are inclined to think, shows conclusively 
that Mr. Locke has "forgotten his place." It is trying enough to have 
him beat our white boys for the honor of going to Oxford; but that he 
should now carry off the Bowdoin prize by an essay on Tennyson of really 
unusual literary merit, will be regarded in some circles, we fear as 
seriously threatening the foundations of our Anglo-Saxon civilization. 
It is really very cruel of Mr. Locke. True he has two generations of edu- 
cated parents behind him, but this: is no excuse. Has it not been proclaim- 
ed from a thousand housetops and sanctums that the Negro is a beast, 
incapable of high intellectual development? We very much fear that the 
Negroes are as determined not to stay in the places assigned them by their 
mental superiors as are those women who refuse to recognize that church,, 
cookery and children should forever limit their intellectual activities. — 
New York Evening Post. 



REFORM. 



There seems to be a great moral awakening just now concerning com- 
mercial honesty. It is full late in manifesting itself, but not too late. 
Dishonest millions have been made and multiplied all these years with 
impunity, and often with praise; but if the pursuit of such gilded crimin- 
als by the nation can put a stop to rebates, legal stock looting and special- 
privileges to grafters, we may well afford to let the past be past in thank- 
fulness for a better future. 



EDITORIAL 75- 

JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES. . 



We regard war between this country and Japan as pretty • sure tf 
come, though how long delayed no one can say, of course. Our reason fcf 
expecting it is that, notwithstanding the object lesson of military capabil 
ity Japan has given, there is a compartment of obtuseness in the averagt 
Caucasian mind th^t prevents their profiting by, or acting on, informa* 
tion impressed upon another compartment. In other words, the American 
mind is like the American Government in that one part need not obey the 
other unless it wants to do so. Thus the State of California can plunge 
tlie nation into war and the nation cannot make California quit. So much- 
for much-vaunted State Rights. 



ONLY FOUR IN THE WORLD. 



Liberia and Abyssinia are the only independent Negro governments in 
Africa, while Hayti and Santo Domingo are the only two in the New 
World. Emigrationists must chose between these four and no more for 
the exodus of the American Negro. Language and religion would count 
out Hayti, Santo Domingo and Abyssinia, to say nothing of general cus- 
toms in the last. Liberia alone is left ; but it is independent only in a 
nominal sense and by the favor of the great white nations. It is financially 
a dependency of Germany, and sentimentally a ward of the United States. 
There seems to be nothing to do, therefore, but to let down our buckets- 
where we are, in the expressive figure of Dr. Washington. 



MRS. LILLIAN IV. DERRICK'S DEATH. 



The unexpected death of Mrs. Lillian Derrick, wife of Bishop W. R- 
Derrick, of the A. M. E. Church, was a shock and a great bereavement 
to all who knew her gentle character, sunny disposition and Christian 
spirit. She was in every sense a good and noble woman, one whose place 
in our hearts was a large one and which will not be easily or quickly 
filled. 

Her loss to her husband cannot be measured. She has walked by hijr 



76 THE REVIEW 

side all these years in both lowly and high estate, and life's sun is now too 
far in the west for him to ever find life the same without her; but he can 
and doubtless does, live in the lively hour that she awaits the reunion that 
is sure to come to all who trust in God. 

We extend the tenderest sympathy to the dear Bishop and commend 
3iim to the Comforter of sorrowful hearts. 



THE IMMORTAL MISS JEANES. 



The gift of Miss Jeanes to the Negro race is a most remarkable one 
both in its object and in the agency for its administration. It was given 
for rudimentary education and its distribution, unlike any other fund 
bestowed for the race, was put into the hands of Negroes. For many 
years, it was thought that no Negro could administer large funds wisely; 
but Dr. B. T. Washington has changed all that. Not even those who 
would have refused to put the management of money into the bands of 
this race, can object or criticise the wisdom of Miss Jeanes' choice. 

Dr. Washington is one of the rare men of any age. Blessed with the 
physical endurance of an athlete, he is as virile as he is versatile, and the 
whole world feels him; but no act of his life will shine more for its broad- 
ness and unselfishness than his agency in determining the direction of this 
princely benefaction to a needy people. Nor will the people forget it. 



THE AFRICAN SLEEPING DISEASE CURED. 



There is a disease in Central Africa with which the natives become 
afflicted, called the sleeping disease. The victims become listless, lazy 
and drowsy, falling asleep anywhere at all times. The end is sure death. 
Science recognized it as the main hindrance to the development of the 
country and a remedy has been diligently sought. The first step was to 
discover the cause. This was found to "be a germ called trepanosoma, 
-introduced into the system by the bite of a gnat called glossina palpalis. 

Various palliatives and inoculatives were tried, but without avail; and 



EDITORIAL 77 

it was thought that nothing but the extermination of the guilty gnat would, 
banish the disease. 

At last, however, Prof. Robert Koch, the noted German scientist and 
chemist, seems to have hit upon a complete cure and thousands of the 
natives are flocking to him from all parts of the infested sections, to be 
cured; and in every case so far success has attended the treatment. This 
consists of a serum called atoxyl, which, when injected into the circulation, 
kills the germ. Thus another obstacle to the civilization of the Dark 
Continent is removed and the day pf its glory draws nearer. 



MR. STEAD. 



Mr. W. T. Stead, the eminent English editor, is essentially a fighter. 
Just now he is fighting for peace. He is eminently fair and courageous 
in all his contentions and does not fear to follow his logic where it leads. 
He is, above all, a lover of men; and neither color, race nor habitat can 
contract the largeness of his soul. 

Mrs. May Church Terrell sought and obtained an interview with him 
when he was in Washington City a few months ago, and behind the thinly 
guised veil of speaking of South African Negroes and not Afro-Americans. 
he said many things that will rasp the complacency of Negro-haters the 
world over. That he could invent the easy fiction of not talking of Ameri- 
can affairs while talking to an American colored lady about the color ques- 
tion shows that Mr, Stead has humor. 

Mr. Stead but expresses the world view when he refuses to consider 
a man's color as any criterion to his place in the world. Nowhere, save 
in the South do civilized people take any other view, and it must ulti- 
mately abandon its anachronistic attitude as to what constitutes honor,, 
worth and manhood or lag behind the onrushing tide of civilization. 

Mr. Thcrrias Nelson Page, at a dinner in Philadelphia last May, 
expressed the fear that the South would remain behind the rest of the 
nation unless some competent man arose soon to write the true history 
of the South. Bui Mr. Page, as usu,;l, when not writing fiction, misses 
the point. It is not a new kind of historical writer that is to save the 
S<mth. but a new kind of maker of historical deeds that is needed. The 
South must develop and encourage the man who is no1 -pending all hi- 



78 THE REVIEW 

Jife and energy trying to hold another man down and kicking against the 
pricks of inevitable fraternity based on equality of opportunity and 
•courtesy. 



THE ATLANTA RIOT;' BY BAKER. 



Through permission of the Phillips Publishing Company, the Com- 
mittee of Twelve for the Advancement of the Interests of the Negra 
.Race, is sending out a reprint of the article, "The Atlanta Riot," by Mr 
Ray Stannard Baker, in the April number of The American Magazine. 

A copy of this remarkable article can be obtained, free of all charge 
by writing a postal card to Mr. Hugh M. Browne, Cheyney, Pa.. 

Whoever wants to see the fairest statement of facts, good and bad 
contained in any published contribution on the race question should send 
for "The Atlanta Riot" at once. It takes its place easily by the side of 
<the able and fair article by Carl Shurz in McClure's a year ago. 

And besides, it is different from the mass of matter now passing 
through our magazines and papers. It recites facts, cold-blooded, uncoloretf 
facts, leaving readers to form their own opinions from them. This i? 
what we want — facts — because they are the hardest things to get in thk 
■ discussion. Opinions dictated t>y hostility or sympathy we have galore, but 
till Mr. Baker entered the field, we have had no one to give us all thi 
facts. Each previous writer we have seen has selected his facts with 
•reference to proving his thesis. Mr. Baker has no thesis or theory. He 
gathers the raw material and sends it in original packages. 

It is to be hoped that 100,000 copies of this article will be called for 
and sent out. No one who proposes to know whereof he speaks, or who 
essays to advise or direct the people will have proper credentials till 
he has not only read this one, but the following contributions to be givei? 
by Mr. Baker in The American, under the general title, "Following the 
Color Line." 

The editor of the A. M. E. Review will also mail copies of Mr. Baker's 
"The Atlanta Riot" to all who write to him, so long as his supply of these 
pamphlets last. 



EDITORIAL 79 

SOME PECULIARITIES OF AMERICAN SUFFRAGE. 



Can a foreigner, not a citizen of the United States, choose our Presi- 
dent for us? Yes, in some States such persons are permitted to vote 
before they are naturalized, if they declare their intention to be. 

If the deciding electoral vote for President of the United States were 
to come from such a State, and the election be so close that the foreign 
vote would decide it, as was the case in New York when Blaine was a 
candidate, it is easy to see that our President would be elected by voters 
not yet citizens. 

As to- sex, while public sentiment is largely against women voting, 
there is no national constitutional prohibition, and in some States they 
•do vote; for instance, in Colorado, Wyoming, Montana and Utah. It is, 
therefore, possible for women to elect our President against the wishes of 
a majority of the men, if the decisive electoral vote came from either of 
these four States. 

As to race, theoretically, Negroes ought to elect the President when 
the North is evenly divided, because they are usually solidly Republican 
in the Southern States where their numbers make them determinative; 
but as a matter of fact, this great vote cuts no figure whatever, owing to 
the peculiar devices adopted by the Southern States to neutralize it. 

Women and unnaturalized foreigners may legally elect a President 
when occasion favors, but the Negro, who is a citizen and a legal voter 
besides, can exercise no influence in the choice. This is a paradox. 

As a matter of history, it is interesting to note that when the ques- 
tion of Negro suffrage was being discussed in the New York Legislature 
in Albany, the most effective argument against it was that the wealthy 
families with many negro servants, would thereby be enabled to cast 
more than one vote per man bj influencing the votes of their servants. 
The solons never seemed to realize that this was an argument against 
any laboring man's having the suffrage. 

Another peculiarity of our voting arrangements is that the majority 
of the voters does not elect, if the majority is wrongly distributed among 
the States; that is, if in the winning Stares of a party the majorities are 
small and in the losing States the opposing majorities are large, the minor- 
ity of all the voters may elect a majority of the electors and so win the 



SO THE REVIEW 

election. This has actually happened. This peculiar fact is the direct 
result of State lines. If the country voted directly for the President and 
regardless of State lines, it could not happen. 



THE TENDENCY. OF NEGRO POPULATION. 



A person noting the large "Negro population of Northern cities, like 
New York, Philadelphia, Chicago and Pittsburgh, and learning that this 
population has grown more rapidly in the last ten years than ever before, 
is apt to conclude that it means a steady transference of the Negroes 
from the Southern to the Northern States. Indeed, many observers, 
influenced by local conditions and drawing conclusions from their own 
surroundings, do stoutly assert this. But if one will correct observation 
by official statistics of the movement of the Negro population in the whole 
country, he will see how mistaken such a conclusion is. 

While the North shows an almost doubled population of this class, the 
preponderence of trend is not northward, nor directly southward, but 
southwestward. It should be remembered, too, that most of the Northern 
increase comes from the moving of adults with their dependents from 
a Southern to a Northern State, but the Southern tendency comes from 
births, the most permanent and reliable source. 

Walker County, Georgia, was, in 1880, the centre of Negro popula- 
tion in the United States. 

In 1890, this centre had moved 22'4 miles to the southwest, in the 
same County; in 1900, it had moved 11 miles still further southwest into 
Dekalb County, Alabama. 

Since this movement, twice measured in twenty years, has been stead- 
ily in one direction it would seem to be a sound assumption that the 
region south and west of the Carolinas and Georgia is growing faster 
than east of these States; in other words, Mississippi, Louisiana, 
Arkansas and Texas are to be the future teeming matrix of Negro mil- 
lions. When we consider the fertility of soil in all these States, the 
warm climate and the invitation offered to agricultural effort, in which 
the Negro excels, all economy and social philosophy would a priori 
predict what is actually taking place. Texas, especially, and perhaps 
Oklahoma also, seems to be marked as the future home of the American 



EDITORIAL 8F 

"Problem;"' and it the numerous and comparatively recent evidences of 
business and industrial efficiency in the Negro continue, he will some 
day dominate in wealth as well as in numbers. 

It is useless to inveigh against natural and social forces ; for whether 
we fike them or not, they "go on forever" and they have a way of rolling 
over the man who does not go with them or rlee from them. 



THE PEN AND THE MICROSCOPE VS. THE SWORD. 



One of the French newspapers took a vote on the most illustrious 
Frenchmen of the century just closed, with a somewhat curious result. 
One would have supposed, without question, that Napoleon Bonaparte 
would have headed the list, but it was not so; he came fourth, and be- 
sides him, not one of the persons in the list was a military man. 

Whether this indicates that peace sentiment is changing the French 
idea of heroes, cannot be told, but it would seem so. The list of name-i, 
with the votes of each, is as follows : 

Pasteur 1,338425 votes. 

Victor Hugo 1,227,103 votes. 

Gambetta 1,155,672 votes. 

Napoleon 1,1 18,034 votes 

Thiers i,o39>453 votes. 

Lazare Camot 950,772 votes. 

Curie 851,107 votes. 

Dumas (Pere) 850,602 votes. 

Dr. Roux 603,941 votes. 

Parmentier 498,863 votes. 

This list shows that a chemist leads, followed by a writer, an orator, 
a soldier and a statesman, in the order named. Dumas, the Negro French 
writer is also found in the list. 

Such a roster of eminent Englishmen would probably be led by a 
scientist like Darwin or Lord Kelvin, or by a statesman like Gladstone; 
an American list would begin with a statesman like Lincoln, an inventor 
like Morse cr Edison, or with a warrior lilv Grant. In any event, the 
lists would show the dethronement of the military ideal; and this, taken 
with the world-wide peace movement realized in the Hague Tribunal, 
presages that the day is not far distant when the pen will indeed >*■ 
"mightier than the sword." 

6 



82 THB REVIEW 

THE HAGUE CONFERENCE. 



The peace movement grows. Statesmen, rulers and business men 
no longer deem it beneath the dignity of serious men to predict the time 
when wars shall cease. Passing strange it is, too, that this movement 
should have originated with warlike Russia, and with a Czar who was 
suspected of imbibing to the full the hope of swallowing up all of Asia 
and much of Europe. Strange also that this same nation had to refuse 
to attend the second session of the Hague Tribunal on the invitation of 
President Roosevelt because it was engaged in a war with peace-loving 
Japan, brought on by Russian greed and aggression. In such: inconsisten- 
cies, paradoxes and contradictions are we involved when we begin to 
regard the whole matter critically. Yet headway is undoubtedly being 
made, and it is no longer a foolish dream, this "parliament of nations, the 
federation of the world." 

The second Hague Conference is now assured and disarmament will 
be its main subject either openly and directly or by intendment. 

Mr. Andrew Carnegie's part in the National Arbitration and Peace 
Congress, which met in New York last April is easily the most illustrious 
act of service to mankind in his whole useful life. The Congress lasted 
two weeks and left as the ripe residium of its deliberations a series of 
resolutions which put the coming Hague Conference on notice and shaped 
the psychology of its point of view. 

These resolutions urge a closer international union for co-operation 
in securing the peace of the world; that the Hague Court of international 
disputes be open to all nations; that a general treaty of arbitration be 
drafted for settlement of all disputes which cannot be settled by diplomacy ; 
that before resorting to force the disputing powers shall invoke a com- 
mission of inquiry; that immunity from capture in war be given private 
property; that reductions of armaments be considered. 

President Roosevelt has appointed a list" of distinguished men to sit 
as delegates in the Hague Conference. The press is favorable, the 
people enthusiastic and the tiue ripe. 

International peace must precede the brotherhood of man and the 
Kingdom of God. Let it come. 



BUSINESS 83 




NOTES OF TRAVEL. 



Atlanta, Ga. — My main purpose in going from Buxton, Iowa, was, as I 
said in the April Review, to attend the Negro National Business League. 
Space will not permit me to do more than say it was a grand session. I 
met and received royal treatment from Dr. Booker T. Washington, the 
bonored founder and President, elected now for the seventh time. His 
creat speech on Wednesday night, August 20th, to an audience which 
resembled the number which John saw, will never be forgotten. May the 
blessing of God ever be upon this great and useful man and his noble 
wife. 

A.U the speeches and testimonials made were very instructive and 
inspiring. I admire very much the high esteem Dr. Washington is receiv- 
ing from his race. 

Dr. I. N. Ross, the very popular pastor of Bethel, secured me a pleas- 
ant and very comfortable home. I was the guest of Mr. and Mrs. Robert 
Anton. Mr. Anton is the clerk of Bethel, and a subscriber for the "Re- 
view." 

On Saturday night, September 1st, I arrived in Hannibal, Mo., the 
home of my aunt, Mrs. Cornelia Bishop, a loyal member of the church, a 
subscriber for the "Review." On Monday, September 3rd, I left Hanni- 
bal for Buxton, Iowa, the scat of the Iowa Conference, with Bishop C. T. 
Shaffer, presiding. On Wednesday mornigg, September 5th, at o'clock, 
a large number of the Conference ;insweied to the roll call. The Confer- 
ence was very pleasant and most royally entertained in this mining town 
of six years' growth, having a. population of 5,000, of which 4.000 arc 
colored. 



84 THE REVIEW 

The Buxton band, composed of some of the- leading" colored men. en- 
tertained the Conference with very fine sacred music. The leader of the 
tend. Air. Richard Olliver, is an African Methodist, and is also the leader 
of the choir of St. John A. M. E. Church. This is said to be the leading 
choir in the Iowa Conference. Buxton . takes another step forward by 
having a Boys' Department Y. M. C. A:, which opened on Thursday, 
September 6th. The Y. M. C. A. building is a palace, a place of comfort, 
where the men and boys may gather for general advancement and whole- 
some entertainment. 

The "Review" received a very liberal support, an increase over last 
year. I was well cared for at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward Miles. 

Marion, Ind. — En route to this beautiful city, I spent Monday night 
in Chicago, at the home of Mrs. Lee, a very faithful member of Quinn 
Chapel. On Tuesday, September nth, I arrived in Marion, the seat or 
the Conference. On Wednesday, September 12th, at 9 A. M., Bishop 
Shaffer convened the Indiana Conference. Each session was very inter- 
esting. Each department was carefully looked after by the Bishop. The 
"Review" received a liberal support, an increase. I was well cared for at 
the home of Mr. and Mrs. George S. Moss. The Bishop, at the request of 
the Conference, presented the Mayor with a copy of "The History of 
Education.'' 

Danville, 111. — On September 19th, at 9 A. M., Bishop Shaffer con- 
vened the Illinois Conference in this city. The Conference made excellent 
reports and was alive to every issue. Each department received marked 
attention. An increase of subscriptions for all the oeriodicals. The "Re- 
view" more than doubled the list since the Conference convened in this 
city five years ago. Rev. J. Al. Wilkerson and his dear members and friends 
deserves special mention for the beautiful church readv for the convening 
of the Conference. 

Lively Eight, the young people's club of nine members, presented th<» 
church with the center chandelier, containing twenty-four lights. Miss 
Fdith Carter is the very worthy president. The juvenile section of the; 
Women's Aid Circle put in the eight lights on the wall, also the pulpit 
hmv. The Women's Aid Circle gave the beautiful circle window over 
the pulpit. The Sewing Circle gave the furnace at a cost of $165.00. Mrs, 
J. M. Wilkerson is the president. I was well cared for at the home of Mrs. 
Lucy Roberts. 



BUSINESS 85 

Hutchinson, Kansas. — On Wednesday morning, September 26th, a* 
9 o'clock, Bishop A. Grant convened the thirty-first session of the Kan- 
sas Conference in this very enterprising city. The church being small, 
the Conference convened in the main building at the fair ground. On the 
morning of the second day. the janitor being late, Bishop Grant announced 
the opening hymn, and we had a glorious open-air meeting. The "Re- 
view" went over the large list secured at Topeka, Kansas. I was royally 
entertained at the very beautiful home of Rev. and Mrs. Chas. O. Smith, 
312 nth St.. west. "Peace and harmony prevail in the Fifth District," 
was the statement made by Bishop Grant. 

Columbia, Mo. — En route to North Missouri Conference, I had the 
extreme pleasure of spending one night at the very pleasant home of Dr. 
and Mrs. F. J. McDonald, Kansas City, Mo. The twenty-first session of 
the North Missouri Conference convened in Columbia, Mo., on Wednes- 
Jay, October 3rd, Bishop A. Grant, presiding. 

On the first clay each minister answered to the roll call and report- 
ed an increase over last year. The several departments were well repre- 
sented and subscriptions secured. The "Review" received a very libera' 
suuport. The Conference was well attended. Mrs. Easton, 407 West Fifth 
str^t, made by stay very pleasant. 

Kansas City, Mo. — On Wednesday, October 10th, at 9 A. M., ir 
beautiful Allen Chapel, of which Dr. F. J. Peck is pastor, Bishop A. Grant 
convened the fifty-second session of the Missouri Conference. Each ses- 
sion was well attended and at the evening service, on account of the intense 
crowd, the officers of the church were compelled to lock the doors, thus 
sending away hundreds of people. Bishop Grant is not only the Bishop 
f*f the A. M. E. Churches in Kansas City, hut Bishop over all the peopF 
rOgardaess of denomination. This is the saying of the people. 

Each department received due recognition. The ''Review" received 
a very large subscription list. The colored people own beautiful horn.;. 
in this city. Located in Kansas City, Kansas. 312 Washington avenue, tf 
well-equipped two-story brick building known as "Douglas Hospital," 
mounded by Bishop Grant. Board of Directfors, 25; 15 arc members of the 
A. M. E. Church. 

On Sunday, October 14th, Allen Christian Endeavor League and the 
Baptist Young People's Union held a joint meeting at 6 P. M., at the 
Baptist Church. Rev. S. C. Bacote, pastor. The representative of the 



86 THE RBVIBW 

"Review" addressed the meeting, setting forth the work of the League 
and a historical sketch of the same. Miss Smith, president of the Union, 
in well chosen words, explained the objects of the B. Y. P. U. Rev. C. A. 
Williams, Mrs. Nora Taylor and Rev. S. C. Bascote also made addresses 
which, were highly appreciated. I was well cared for at the very pleasant 
iome of Mr. and Mrs. B. Johnson, 2449 Highland avenue. One session of 
Ac Conference was held at Quindarb University, Prof. Shelton French, 
president. 

Bowling Green, Ky. — On Monday, October 15th, at 8.30 P. M., I left 
Kansas City, Mo., tor Bowling Green, Ky., the seat of the Kentucky Con- 
ference. On Wednesday, October 17th, at 9 A. M., Bishop C. T. Shaffer 
convened the Kentucky Conference, which was quite pleasant and very 
profitable to the departments. The "Review" received a large subscription, 
an increase over last year. 

The colored people own very pretty and comfortable homes in Bowl- 
ing Green. On Saturday evening, October 20th, I had the pleasure of 
enjoying with several friends a social repast at Bowling Green Academy. 
Rev. R. L. 'Hyde is the most worthy president. Miss Bertha Lee Tate, a 
graduate of A. and M. College, at Normal, Ala., whom I had the pleas- 
ure of meeting at Normal in December, 1905, graduated May, 1906, and is 
now one of the teachers of Bowling Green Academy. We wish for her 
much success-. 

Rev. Robert Mitchell, D.D., pastor of State St. Baptist Churcli, assisted 
greatly in caring for the Conference. The Conference presented the Dr. 
with a copy of the"History of the Episcopacy,"by the lamented Dr. James 

A. Davis, and a receipt for one year's subscription to the "Review." The 
Conference also presented the Mayor with "The History of Education." 
These tokens were received with great delight. I was well cared for at 
the home of Mr. and Mrs. C. Carter and Mr. and. Mrs. John Porter. 

Pulaski, Tenn. — On Thursday morning., October 25, at 9 o'clock, Bishop 

B. F. Lee presiding, the thirty-ninth session of the Tennessee Conference 

convened in Pulaski, Tenn. ; . The Conference was well attended and the 

I 
beautiful church made so by the pastor, Rev. A. P. Gray, his dear mem- 
bers and friends, was awaiting the coming of the Conference. The dear 
people of Pulaski entertained the Conference in royal style. Bishop Lee 
was delighted with the entertainment at his home. The "Review" re- 



BUSINESS 87 

ccived a most excellent list of subscribers, and the representative was 
most graciously entertained at the home of Mrs. Sarah Suggs. 

Pulaski has one colored doctor, in the person of Dr. J. D. Fowler, who 
has an extensive practice. The colored people own some very pretty and 
comfortable homes in this town. 

El Reno, Okla. — On Wednesday, October 31st, at 9 A. M., in Bethel 
A. M. E. Church, Bishop Evans Tyree convened the eleventh session of 
the Oklahoma Conference. This is truly a missionary Conference, but 
loyal to the connection. The Bishop and each member of the Conference 
gave me a warm welcome. We had fine weather for the Conference, a 
comfortable church and the white citizens gave liberally to the support of 
the Conference. At the close of the missionary sermon by Rev. Kennard, 
■on Thursday evening, Rev. Carter, pastor of the M. E. Church (white), 
a>\sisted in calling sinners for prayer. El Reno has a population of 5,000. 
Most of the people own two houses, one built on the ground, and another 
under the ground where they go for safety from the cyclones in the spring. 
The ''Review" received a liberal support. The largest list ever secured 
from the Oklahoma Conference. I was most royally entertained at the 
beautiful home of Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Moore. 

Yoakum, Texas. — Leaving El Reno, Okla., in company with Bishop 
and Mrs. Tyree on Monday morning, November 5th, at 2 o'clock, arrived 
in Fort Worth, at 9 o'clock, and spent the day very pleasantly at the 
beautiful home of Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Stovall. Leaving at 5 P. M. 
arrived in Waco, Texas, at 10 o'clock. Enjoyed a most excellent supper 
at the home of Mrs. Moore, widow of the late Prof. Moore; then to the 
home of Prof, and Mrs. A. S. Jackson, where I enjoyed a sweet rest. On 
Tuesday morning, the 6th, we left Waco for Yoakum, the seat of the 
West Texas Conference, arriving at 1.05 P. M. On Wednesday morning, 
November 7th, at 9 o'clock, Bishop Tyree convened the thirty-first session 
of the West Texas Conference, which was grand and glorious from the 
convening to the adjournment. The "Review*' was triumphant, increase 
over last year. 

Prof. Kealing, our very distinguished elitor, is loved dearly by the 

tiembers and friends of the Conferences in Texas. Mrs,. L. ,M. Wyseman, 
President of the Conference Branch and Organizer of the Woman's Home 

and Foreign Missionary Society, and the representative of the "Review," 

Avere most graciously entertained at the comfortable home of Mr. and 



88 THE REVIEW 

Mrs. Abraham Johnson. Rev. Charles W. McCowan, D.D., Presiding 
Elder of the Yoakum District, owns a beautiful home in Yoakum, and ft 
was in this home where Bishop and Mrs. Tyree were lavishly entertained. 
Yoakum has a population of 6,000, quite an enterprising town. 

Temple, Tex.— En route to Temple, the seat of the Central Texas 
Conference, 1 had a very pleasant stop-over at Cameron, where we have 
a commodious and beautiful church, Rev. H. K. McCoy, pastor. Mrs. 
McCoy. fully understands how to make one feel "at home." On Sunday 
night, November nth, at the request of the pastor, I made a talk, which 
was highly appreciated by all, and subscribers were secured for the "Re- 
view." On Wednesday morning, November 14th, at 9 o'clock, Bishop 
Tyree convened the nineteenth session of the Central Texas Conference 
in the beautiful church, made so by the pastor, Rev. L. J. Sanders and 
his faithful members and friends. The Conference was well attended. 
The church was crowded to an overflow ; each evening hundreds were 
turned away. 

Bishop Tyree is loved by his many faithful ministers and friends 1? 
the Lone Star State. I had the good fortune of securing more subscribers 
in two Conferences this year than was secured in four Conferences 
last year. Tticrease in Central Texas a hundred per cent. I was well 
cared for in the pretty and comfortable home of Mrs. A. Dorsey. 

Palestine, Texas. — En route to Palestine, the seat of the Texas Con- 
ference, 1 had a very pleasant stop over at the home of Rev. and Mrs. J. 
Jones, at Taylor, Texas. We have in this town a neat church and the 
beautiful carpet which covers the rostrum was purchased by Mrs. Jones 
and the faithful women of the church. On Wednesday morning, Novem- 
ber 21st, at 9 o'clock, Bishop Tyree convened the fortieth session of the 
Texas Conference, at Palestine, Texas, in Mt. Vernon A. M. E. Church.. 
of which Rev. F. W. Wright is the very able pastor. The Conference was 
quite interesting. The "Review-" received an excellent list of subscrib- 
ers. J was well cared for at the parsonage. My kind host and hostess, 
Rev. and Mrs. Wright, ma'V, my stay very pleasant. 

Summit, Miss. — Leaving Palestine, Texas, on Thursday night, Novem- 
ber 22nd. I arrived in Summit on Friday night, November 23rd. This 

town was the seat of the Mississippi Conference, Bishop M. B. Salter 
presiding. My stay was very pleasant. Rev. Jones, pastor of the Baptist 



business; 8 ( J 

Church, and his members treated me royally. I was entertained at the 
home of Mrs. Cotton and daughter, who did not leave a stone unturned in 
making my stay pleasant. 

Yazoo City, Miss. — This is now a very pretty city, since the fire 
in 1902. The fifteenth annual session of the Central Mississippi Confer- 
ence convened in this town on Wednesday morning November 28th, at 
9 o'clock, with Bishop M. B. Salter presiding. The "Review" received 
an excellent list of subscribers. I was well cared for by the pastor. Rev. 
H. H. King, D.D., Miss Elizabeth McGee and Mrs. Priscilla Scott. 

Greenwood, Miss.— This town, with a population of 9,000, the home 
of Mr. Vardemari, the Governor of Mississippi, was the seat of the thir- 
teenth session of the North Mississippi Conference, which convened on 
Wednesday morning, December 5th, at 9 o'clock, with Bishop M. B. Sal- 
ter presiding. More than one hundred ministers answered to the roll call 
on the first day of the Conference. We greatly feared that Turner Chapel 
A. M. E. Church, of which Rev. W. T. Johnson is the energetic and con- 
genial pastor, would not accommodate the Conference and friends. Several 
general officers, representatives and visiting clergymen were in attend- 
ance. 

The colored people own beautiful and well-furnished homes in this 
town. The labor of the colored people is appreciated and sought for, as 
they are employed in all the industries operated in this towm. I was 
royally entertained in the elegant home of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Wicks 
and their two very pretty and accomplished daughters, the Misses Louise 
and Cecil. Mr. Wicks is a prosperous farmer, owning a large farm only 
two miles from Greenwood, lie raised this year thirty bales of cotton. 

St. George, S. C. — On leaving Greenwood, Miss., on Monday evening, 
December 10th, at 6.30 o'clock, 1 arrived in St. George, S. C, the seat 
•of the South Carolina Conference, on Wednesday morning, December 12th, 
at 6.30 o'clock. Promptly at the hour announced Bishop L. J. Coppin con- 
vened the forty-ninth session of the old historic South Carolina Confer- 
ence. At the conclusion of the organization, the Bishop introduced the 
general officers, representatives and visiting clergy to the Conference. 
We were accorded right of way and at once proceeded to business, thus 
securing an excellent list of subscribers for the "Review." an increase over 
last year. The Conference was well attended. Many great and good 
-speeches were made, which. T trust, will result in much good to the many 



90 THE REVIEW 

listeners. The South Carolina Conference was honored by a visit from 
Bishop Gaines, who was delighted to be present and in a kind, fatherly way, 
rendered valuable service. Rev. P. N. Monzon and his dear people deserves 
much credit for the spacious' two-story parsonage just built this year; the 
remodeling of the church and the very splendid entertainment given to 
the members of the Conference, general officers and representatives. Two 
of the general officers and the two lady representatives were entertained 
at the parsonage with Bishop Coppin and Bishop Gaines. These two 
Bishops dearly love each other. It is as it should be, "Drawn out in liv- 
ing characters." 

Brooklyn, N. Y. — At the very special invitation from Dr. and Mrs. 
A. R. Cooper to be their guest for the Christmas Holidays, I arrived m 
Brooklyn on Friday night, December 21 st, at 8.22 o'clock, and was met by 
the Dr. at Fulton ferry. In a few moments we arrived at the very com- 
fortable and commodious parsonage where Mrs. Cooper, Mrs. Robinson 
and dear little Robert, of five years,, baby Naomi of eighteen months, and 
an excellent supper awaited my arrival. 

On Sunday, December 23rd, at Bridge St. Church, of which Dr. 
Cooper is the successful pastor (not only in money raising, but in soul 
saving) at 11 A. M. preached a powerful sermon. Text, St. Matthew. 
16: 28. On Christmas morning, at 10.30 o'clock he preached again. Text, 
St. Matthew, 2: 10. Subject, 'The Star of Hope." Many were the greet- 
ings and presentations to the pastor. At 8 P. M., Christmas tree for the 
little ones. The tree was very pretty and all went home rejoicing. Much 
credit is due the superintendent, Mrs. Smith, and the faithful teachers. 
On Sunday, December 30th, at 11 A. M., I attended Payne Memorial A. 
M. E. Church, Rev. R. T. Chase, pastor. 

This is only a mission; Rev. Chase is striving his uttermost to ob- 
serve the connectional days, ajgo having a missionary and Allen Christian- 
Endeavor League. His dear | >eople presented him with "The History of 
Education." 

Watch meeting night at Bridge St., on Monday night, December 
31st, was conducted just as they are usually conducted in the South. Ser- 
mon by the pastor, praise meeting, silent prayer and then a burst of "A 
Happy New Year." The church was crowded, all space taken. All went 



BUSINESS 91 

home rejoicing. Several subscribed for the "Review" as a new' year's gift r 
wishing the department much success this year of 1907. 

With love and gratitude to all for the kindness shown me and wish- 
ing you a glorious success, I am yours for God, the Race, and the "Re- 
view, 

E. Marie Carter. 






The Afro- American Press 

By DR. I. GARLAND PENN 

will be given as 

A PREMIUM 

FOR 

4 New Subscribers £ A. M. E. Review 4 

AT $1.00 EACH, TO ANYONE 



This great offer is for any minister especially, who will secure four 
of his people as readers of The Review. 

The book, "The Afro-AmericCLn Press/' is worth 
$2*50 a copy. We have less than one hundred (ioo) copies on 
hand ; consequently you must get busy at once, if you want one. 

Let every Review subscriber aim to be the lucky one. 

Should the books become exhausted, a cash prize of one dollar 
($i.oo) will be paid instead; thus everyone will get a prize. 

The book contains many race facts to be found nowhere else, and 
will be valuable in any library. It contains pages and is profusely 
illustrated with fine cuts of leading Negroes. 

Send in four names with four dollar/ ($4. 00) and the book will 
reach you by return mail. 

Address, 

H. T. KEAUIINQ 

03J PINE STREET, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



I 




Lw Conger 



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A treatise designed to correct the large death rate 
among the people both in city and country 

By H. T. HEALING, A. M. 

Editor of A, M, E. Church Review, Philadelphia 

A book for preacher and people; full of valuable information need- 
ed by all. Simple, but comprehensive; containing matter for 
many lectures telling how to save the lives of the people. 



Some of the Subjects Treated in this Book 

How Long We Ought to Live, How Breathing Poisons the Air of a Room, 

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Four cents extra when sent by mail. 
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M. T. KEAL4INC3 

631 Pine Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 





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HOSEA ^ OBADIAH 




Now ready. Send for them now. Every preacher needs these books. 

Address H. T. Kealing, 631 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa.